DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2019.162572

Optimization of the deposition conditions for Ni(OH)2 films for electrochromic elements of “smart” windows

Valerii Kotok, Vadym Kovalenko

Abstract


Thestudywasconductedinordertodeterminethe influenceoftwofactorsonelectrodepositionofNi(OH)2 films: concentrationofnickelnitratein the electrolyteanddrying stage between deposition and electrochemical and optical tests. For deposition, pure solutions of nickel nitrate without additives were used, so that the presence of the latter did not complicate the analysis of the data obtained.

As a result, two series of films were prepared from electrolytes with nickel nitrate concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 M. The difference between the two series is the presence or absence of drying stage after deposition. Drying was conducted under mild conditions at room temperatures.

Electrochemical and optical characteristics were evaluated by means of cyclic voltamperometry with simultaneous recording of changes in film transparency.

As a result of analysis of the obtained data, it was found that uniform films with roughly equal thickness are obtained within the nickel nitrate concentration range from 0.01 to 0.1 M. For solutions with the nickel nitrate concentration of 1 М, deposition occurs with significant non-uniformity. A hypothesis was proposed, in which such behavior is explained by redistribution of current density over the electrode surface due to the high conductivity of the concentrated nickel nitrate solution. In turn, the redistribution of current density results in a significantly high current density on the electrode surface near the electrolyte-air boundary. Such an increase could result in shifting of the reaction front away from the electrode or formation of Ni(OH)2 with high thickness. The latter would lose contact with the electrode and fall off.

It was also found that drying process has a significant effect on the structure and properties of the films. Drying process was also found to impact the appearance of nickel hydroxide films due to film cracking. It was also assumed that electrochemically deposited nickel hydroxide contains a large amount of crystal water

Keywords


Ni(OH)2; nickel hydroxide; electrochromism; NiOOH; film; electrodeposition; cyclic voltamperometry; concentration; nickel nitrate

References


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Wang, J. M., Sun, X. W., Jiao, Z. (2010). Application of Nanostructures in Electrochromic Materials and Devices: Recent Progress. Materials, 3 (12), 5029–5053. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma3125029

How The Magical Windows in Boeing's 787 Dreamliner Work. Available at: https://gizmodo.com/how-the-magical-windows-in-boeings-787-dreamliner-work-5829395

Smart glass for better buildings. Available at: https://www.sageglass.com/en/products

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Kotok, V. A., Malyshev, V. V., Solovov, V. A., Kovalenko, V. L. (2017). Soft Electrochemical Etching of FTO-Coated Glass for Use in Ni(OH)2-Based Electrochromic Devices. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 6 (12), P772–P777. doi: https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0071712jss

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Fetcenko, M. A., Ovshinsky, S. R., Reichman, B., Young, K., Fierro, C., Koch, J. et. al. (2007). Recent advances in NiMH battery technology. Journal of Power Sources, 165 (2), 544–551. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.036

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Ge, W., Peng, W., Encinas, A., Ruiz, M. F., Song, S. (2019). Preparation and characterization of flowerlike Al-doped Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitor applications. Chemical Physics, 521, 55–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphys.2019.01.022

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Kotok, V., Kovalenko, V. (2018). A study of the effect of cycling modes on the electrochromic properties of Ni(OH)2 films. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6 (5 (96)), 62–69. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.150577

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Kotok, V. A., Kovalenko, V. L., Kovalenko, P. V. et. al. (2017). Advanced electrochromic Ni(OH)2/PVA films formed by electrochemical template synthesis. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12 (13), 3962–3977. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5628/61836625c1b46d9daeb7bbe73e7d85338519.pdf

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Morisaki, S., Kawakami, K., Baba, N. (1988). Formation of Nickel Oxyhydroxide Thin Films by Electrodepositon and Their Electrochromic Characteristics. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 27, 314–318. doi: https://doi.org/10.1143/jjap.27.314

Liu, H.-S., Chang, W.-C., Chou, C.-Y., Pan, B.-C., Chou, Y.-S., Liou, G.-S., Liu, C.-L. (2017). Controllable Electrochromic Polyamide Film and Device Produced by Facile Ultrasonic Spray-coating. Scientific Reports, 7 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11862-1

Abareshi, A., Haratizadeh, H. (2016). Effect of annealing temperature on optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide thin films. Iranian Journal of Physics Research, 16 (3), 47–54. doi: https://doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.ijpr.16.3.47

Sahu, D. R., Wu, T.-J., Wang, S.-C., Huang, J.-L. (2017). Electrochromic behavior of NiO film prepared by e-beam evaporation. Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices, 2 (2), 225–232. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsamd.2017.05.001

Chananonnawathorn, C., Pudwat, S., Horprathum, M., Eiamchai, P., Limnontakul, P., Salawan, C., Aiempanakit, K. (2012). Electrochromic Property Dependent on Oxygen Gas Flow Rate and Films Thickness of Sputtered WO3 Films. Procedia Engineering, 32, 752–758. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.02.008

Jayashree, R. S., Kamath, P. V. (1999). Factors governing the electrochemical synthesis of α-nickel (II) hydroxide. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 29, 449–454. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003493711239

Senthilkumar, S. T., Kalai Selvan, R. (2014). Fabrication and performance studies of a cable-type flexible asymmetric supercapacitor. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16 (29), 15692. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cp00955j

Price Performance. Available at: http://www.optitune.com/price-performance.php


GOST Style Citations


Deb S. K. A Novel Electrophotographic System // Applied Optics. 1969. Vol. 8, Issue S1. P. 192. doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/ao.8.000192 

Wang J. M., Sun X. W., Jiao Z. Application of Nanostructures in Electrochromic Materials and Devices: Recent Progress // Materials. 2010. Vol. 3, Issue 12. P. 5029–5053. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma3125029 

How The Magical Windows in Boeing's 787 Dreamliner Work. URL: https://gizmodo.com/how-the-magical-windows-in-boeings-787-dreamliner-work-5829395

Smart glass for better buildings. URL: https://www.sageglass.com/en/products

Azens A., Granqvist C. Electrochromic smart windows: energy efficiency and device aspects // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2003. Vol. 7, Issue 2. P. 64–68. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-002-0313-4 

Soft Electrochemical Etching of FTO-Coated Glass for Use in Ni(OH)2-Based Electrochromic Devices / Kotok V. A., Malyshev V. V., Solovov V. A., Kovalenko V. L. // ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. 2017. Vol. 6, Issue 12. P. P772–P777. doi: https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0071712jss 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. A study of multilayered electrochromic platings based on nickel and cobalt hydroxides // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 1, Issue 12 (91). P. 29–35. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.121679 

Recent advances in NiMH battery technology / Fetcenko M. A., Ovshinsky S. R., Reichman B., Young K., Fierro C., Koch J. et. al. // Journal of Power Sources. 2007. Vol. 165, Issue 2. P. 544–551. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.036 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. Definition of the aging process parameters for nickel hydroxide in the alkaline medium // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 2, Issue 12 (92). P. 54–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.127764 

Preparation and characterization of flowerlike Al-doped Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitor applications / Ge W., Peng W., Encinas A., Ruiz M. F., Song S. // Chemical Physics. 2019. Vol. 521. P. 55–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphys.2019.01.022 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Definition of effectiveness of β-Ni(OH)2 application in the alkaline secondary cells and hybrid supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 5, Issue 6 (89). P. 17–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.110390 

Optimization of electrolyte composition for the cathodic template deposition of Ni(OH)2-based electrochromic films on FTO glass / Kotok V. A., Kovalenko V. L., Zima A. S., Kirillova E. A. Burkov A. A., Kobylinska N. G. et. al. // ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2019. Vol. 14, Issue 2. P. 344–353. URL: http://www.arpnjournals.org/jeas/research_papers/rp_2019/jeas_0119_7562.pdf

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. A study of the effect of cycling modes on the electrochromic properties of Ni(OH)2 films // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 6, Issue 5 (96). P. 62–69. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.150577 

Natarajan C. Improvement in Electrochromic Stability of Electrodeposited Nickel Hydroxide Thin Film // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 1997. Vol. 144, Issue 1. P. 121. doi: https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1837373 

Efficient electrochromic nickel oxide thin films by electrodeposition / Sonavane A. C., Inamdar A. I., Shinde P. S., Deshmukh H. P., Patil R. S., Patil P. S. // Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2010. Vol. 489, Issue 2. P. 667–673. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.09.146 

Advanced electrochromic Ni(OH)2/PVA films formed by electrochemical template synthesis / Kotok V. A., Kovalenko V. L., Kovalenko P. V. et. al. // ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2017. Vol. 12, Issue 13. P. 3962–3977. URL: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5628/61836625c1b46d9daeb7bbe73e7d85338519.pdf

Electrochromic Performance of Nickel Oxide Thin Film: Synthesis via Electrodeposition Technique / Kondalkar V. V., Patil P. B., Mane R. M., Patil P. S., Choudhury S., Bhosal P. N. // Macromolecular Symposia. 2016. Vol. 361, Issue 1. P. 47–50. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/masy.201400253 

Morisaki S., Kawakami K., Baba N. Formation of Nickel Oxyhydroxide Thin Films by Electrodepositon and Their Electrochromic Characteristics // Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. 1988. Vol. 27. P. 314–318. doi: https://doi.org/10.1143/jjap.27.314 

Controllable Electrochromic Polyamide Film and Device Produced by Facile Ultrasonic Spray-coating / Liu H.-S., Chang W.-C., Chou C.-Y., Pan B.-C., Chou Y.-S., Liou G.-S., Liu C.-L. // Scientific Reports. 2017. Vol. 7, Issue 1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11862-1 

  1. Abareshi A., Haratizadeh H. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide thin films // Iranian Journal of Physics Research.     2016. Vol. 16, Issue 3. P. 47–54. doi: https://doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.ijpr.16.3.47 

Electrochromic behavior of NiO film prepared by e-beam evaporation / Sahu D. R., Wu T.-J., Wang S.-C., Huang J.-L. // Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices. 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 2. P. 225–232. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsamd.2017.05.001 

Electrochromic Property Dependent on Oxygen Gas Flow Rate and Films Thickness of Sputtered WO3 Films / Chananonnawathorn C., Pudwat S., Horprathum M., Eiamchai P., Limnontakul P., Salawan C., Aiempanakit K. // Procedia Engineering. 2012. Vol. 32. P. 752–758. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.02.008 

Jayashree R. S., Kamath P. V. Factors governing the electrochemical synthesis of α-nickel (II) hydroxide // Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. 1999. Vol. 29. P. 449–454. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003493711239

Senthilkumar S. T., Kalai Selvan R. Fabrication and performance studies of a cable-type flexible asymmetric supercapacitor // Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2014. Vol. 16, Issue 29. P. 15692. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cp00955j 

Price Performance. URL: http://www.optitune.com/price-performance.php







Copyright (c) 2019 Valerii Kotok, Vadym Kovalenko

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061