DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2019.164232

Investigation of cogging forces using reluctance circuits equivalent approximation in a ladder secondary single­sided linear induction motor

Mochammad Rusli, I Nyoman Gede Wardana, Moch Agus Choiron, Muhammad Aziz Muslim

Abstract


Linear induction motors have recently played an important role in positioning linear motion. However, they suffer a low level of precision for very low speed application. For improving the precision of LIM, especially in very low speed application – high-performance motor – the existence of cogging forces due to the magnetic conductance of air gap variation or interactive magnetic edge and end effect variation in the ladder-secondary single-sided linear induction motor (LSLIM) should be reduced as small as possible. This paper developed two simple magnetic circuits: one-slot and multi-slot model. The cogging forces analysis will be concerned with magnetic energy variation in the air gap. Based on magnetic conductance inparalleland series structures, analysis of RCE will be done by implementation of Kirchoff  law number one and number two. It shows that analytical result trends are close to the experimental results and finite element method software. This paper provides the prediction of a close form of the mathematical model of maximum cogging forces for single-side linear induction motors. So, those results can contribute one aspect in related designing a physical single or double-sided linear induction motor. The variation of flux densities in the air gap in the middle region of LSLIM can give some contribution for calculating cogging forces, and different variation of leakage magnetic path fields in the end region can reduce the magnitude of flux densities in the air gap, but cogging forces in the end region can cancel each other

Keywords


linear induction motor; cogging forces; reluctance network; electromagnetic field

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References


Zhu, Z. Q., Hor, P. J., Howe, D., Rees-Jones, J. (1997). Calculation of cogging force in a novel slotted linear tubular brushless permanent magnet motor. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 33 (5), 4098–4100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/20.619675

Deodhar, R. P., Staton, D. A., Jahns, T. M., Miller, T. J. E. (1996). Prediction of cogging torque using the flux-MMF diagram technique. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 32 (3), 569–576. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/28.502168

Hwang, S.-M., Eom, J.-B., Jung, Y.-H., Lee, D.-W., Kang, B.-S. (2001). Various design techniques to reduce cogging torque by controlling energy variation in permanent magnet motors. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 37 (4), 2806–2809. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/20.951313

Bianchi, N., Bolognani, S., Cappello, A. D. F. (2005). Reduction of cogging force in PM linear motors by pole-shifting. IEE Proceedings – Electric Power Applications, 152 (3), 703. doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20045082

Yoshimura, T., Kim, H. J., Watada, M., Torii, S., Ebihara, D. (1995). Analysis of the reduction of detent force in a permanent magnet linear synchronous motor. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 31 (6), 3728–3730. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/20.489752

Gieras, J. F. (1994). Linear induction Drives. Oxford University press Inc.

Zhu, Z. Q., Howe, D. (1993). Instantaneous magnetic field distribution in brushless permanent magnet DC motors. III. Effect of stator slotting. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 29 (1), 143–151. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/20.195559

Lim, J., Jung, H.-K. (2008). Cogging force reduction in permanent magnet linear motor using phase set shift. 2008 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/icelmach.2008.4800188

Rusli, M., Moscrop, J., Platt, D., Cook, C. (2011). An Analytical Method for predicting Cogging Forces in Linear Induction motors. LDIA, 301–307.

Rusli, M., Cook, C. (2015). Design of geometric parameters of a double-sided linear induction motor with ladder secondary and a consideration for reducing cogging force. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10 (15), 6319–6328.

Rusli, M., Wardana, I. N. G., Choiron, M. A., Muslim, M. A. (2018). The Effect of Ladder-Bar Shape Variation for A Ladder-Secondary Double-Sided Linear Induction Motor (LSDSLIM) Design to Cogging Force and Useful Thrust Performances. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 8 (1-9), 87–92.

Rusli, M., Wardana, I. N. G., Choiron, M. A., Muslim, M. A. (2017). Design, Manufacture and Finite Element Analysis of a Small-Scale Ladder-Secondary Double-Sided Linear Induction Motor. Advanced Science Letters, 23 (5), 4371–4377. doi: https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2017.8853

Mu, H.-H., Zhou, Y.-F., Wen, X., Zhou, Y.-H. (2009). Calibration and compensation of cogging effect in a permanent magnet linear motor. Mechatronics, 19 (4), 577–585. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mechatronics.2008.12.004

Youn, S. W., Lee, J. J., Yoon, H. S., Koh, C. S. (2008). A New Cogging-Free Permanent-Magnet Linear Motor. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 44 (7), 1785–1790. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/tmag.2008.918921

Zhu, Z. Q., Xia, Z. P., Howe, D., Mellor, P. H. (1997). Reduction of cogging force in slotless linear permanent magnet motors. IEE Proceedings – Electric Power Applications, 144 (4), 277. doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:19971057

Dawson, G. E., Eastham, A. R., Gieras, J. F., Ong, R., Ananthasivam, K. (1986). Design of Linear Induction Drives by Field Analysis and Finite-Element Techniques. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, IA-22 (5), 865–873. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/tia.1986.4504805

Brandenburg, G., Bruckl, S., Dormann, J., Heinzl, J., Schmidt, C. (2000). Comparative investigation of rotary and linear motor feed drive systems for high precision machine tools. 6th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control Proceedings. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/amc.2000.862898

El-Rahman, A. (1987). The Effect of skewing on Torque Pulsations in a slip-Ring Induction Motor with Stator Voltage Control. Electric Energy Conference 1987: An International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives; Proceedings. Barton, ACT: Institution of Engineers, 458–461.


GOST Style Citations


Calculation of cogging force in a novel slotted linear tubular brushless permanent magnet motor / Zhu Z. Q., Hor P. J., Howe D., Rees-Jones J. // IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 1997. Vol. 33, Issue 5. P. 4098–4100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/20.619675 

Prediction of cogging torque using the flux-MMF diagram technique / Deodhar R. P., Staton D. A., Jahns T. M., Miller T. J. E. // IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 1996. Vol. 32, Issue 3. P. 569–576. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/28.502168 

Various design techniques to reduce cogging torque by controlling energy variation in permanent magnet motors / Hwang S.-M., Eom J.-B., Jung Y.-H., Lee D.-W., Kang B.-S. // IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2001. Vol. 37, Issue 4. P. 2806–2809. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/20.951313 

Bianchi N., Bolognani S., Cappello A. D. F. Reduction of cogging force in PM linear motors by pole-shifting // IEE Proceedings – Electric Power Applications. 2005. Vol. 152, Issue 3. P. 703. doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20045082 

Analysis of the reduction of detent force in a permanent magnet linear synchronous motor / Yoshimura T., Kim H. J., Watada M., Torii S., Ebihara D. // IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 1995. Vol. 31, Issue 6. P. 3728–3730. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/20.489752 

Gieras J. F. Linear induction Drives. Oxford University press Inc., 1994.

Zhu Z. Q., Howe D. Instantaneous magnetic field distribution in brushless permanent magnet DC motors. III. Effect of stator slotting // IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 1993. Vol. 29, Issue 1. P. 143–151. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/20.195559 

Lim J., Jung H.-K. Cogging force reduction in permanent magnet linear motor using phase set shift // 2008 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines. 2008. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/icelmach.2008.4800188 

An Analytical Method for predicting Cogging Forces in Linear Induction motors / Rusli M., Moscrop J., Platt D., Cook C. // LDIA. 2011. P. 301–307.

Rusli M., Cook C. Design of geometric parameters of a double-sided linear induction motor with ladder secondary and a consideration for reducing cogging force // ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2015. Vol. 10, Issue 15. P. 6319–6328.

The Effect of Ladder-Bar Shape Variation for A Ladder-Secondary Double-Sided Linear Induction Motor (LSDSLIM) Design to Cogging Force and Useful Thrust Performances / Rusli M., Wardana I. N. G., Choiron M. A., Muslim M. A. // Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering. 2018. Vol. 8, Issue 1-9. P. 87–92.

Design, Manufacture and Finite Element Analysis of a Small-Scale Ladder-Secondary Double-Sided Linear Induction Motor / Rusli M., Wardana I. N. G., Choiron M. A., Muslim M. A. // Advanced Science Letters. 2017. Vol. 23, Issue 5. P. 4371–4377. doi: https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2017.8853 

Calibration and compensation of cogging effect in a permanent magnet linear motor / Mu H.-H., Zhou Y.-F., Wen X., Zhou Y.-H. // Mechatronics. 2009. Vol. 19, Issue 4. P. 577–585. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mechatronics.2008.12.004 

A New Cogging-Free Permanent-Magnet Linear Motor / Youn S. W., Lee J. J., Yoon H. S., Koh C. S. // IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2008. Vol. 44, Issue 7. P. 1785–1790. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/tmag.2008.918921 

Reduction of cogging force in slotless linear permanent magnet motors / Zhu Z. Q., Xia Z. P., Howe D., Mellor P. H. // IEE Proceedings – Electric Power Applications. 1997. Vol. 144, Issue 4. P. 277. doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:19971057 

Design of Linear Induction Drives by Field Analysis and Finite-Element Techniques / Dawson G. E., Eastham A. R., Gieras J. F., Ong R., Ananthasivam K. // IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 1986. Vol. IA-22, Issue 5. P. 865–873. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/tia.1986.4504805 

Comparative investigation of rotary and linear motor feed drive systems for high precision machine tools / Brandenburg G., Bruckl S., Dormann J., Heinzl J., Schmidt C. // 6th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control Proceedings. 2000. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/amc.2000.862898 

El-Rahman A. The Effect of skewing on Torque Pulsations in a slip-Ring Induction Motor with Stator Voltage Control // Electric Energy Conference 1987: An International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives; Proceedings. Barton, ACT: Institution of Engineers, 1987. P. 458–461.







Copyright (c) 2019 Mochammad Rusli, I Nyoman Gede Wardana, Muhammad Aziz Muslim, Moch Agus Choiron

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061