Development of solutions concerning regulation of proper deformations in alkali-activated cements
The essence of the problem related to proper deformations in alkali-activated cements (AAC) complicated with high content of gel-like hydrate formations was analyzed. Cement types diametrically opposite in their compositions and, accordingly, in the content of gel phases during hydration, that is, the alkali-activated portland cement (AAPC) and alkali-activated slag cement (AASC) were taken for consideration. Approaches to formation of an effective structure of artificial stone counteracting shrinkage deformation by means of interference in structure formation when using complexes of mineral and organic compounds were proposed. Such compounds in composition of complex organo-mineral admixtures jointly influence intensification of crystallization processes and formation of an effective pore structure and morphology of hydrate phases while reducing water content in artificial stone. Salt electrolytes of various anionic types and anion-active surface-active substances were considered as ingredients of the proposed complex modifying admixtures.
It has been found that the "salt electrolyte–surfactant" system is the most effective for AAPC modification. It was shown that modification of AAPC with this complex admixture based on NaNO3 reduced shrinkage from 0.406 to 0.017 mm/m. Instead, the use of Na2SO4 provided AAC of this type with a capacity of expansion up to 0.062 mm/m. It was shown that the effect of compensated shrinkage of modified AAPC is associated with a higher crystallization of low-basicity hydrosilicates (CSH(B)) and calcium hydroaluminates (CaO∙Al2O3∙10H2O). An additional effect is associated with formation of sulfate-containing sodium-calcium hydroaluminate (for the Na2SO4-based system) and crystalline calcium hydronitroaluminate (for the NaNO3-based system) with a corresponding microstructure stress.For further development, a complex admixture of "Portland cement clinker–salt electrolyte–surfactant" system was proposed for AASC modification. It provided shrinkage reduction from 0.984 mm/m to 0.683 mm/m. Minimization of the modified AASC shrinkage was explained by formation of sodium hydroalumosilicate of gmelinite type ((Na2Ca)∙Al2∙Si4∙O12∙6H2O) with a high degree of crystallization along with low-basicity calcium hydrosilicates. It was noted that the cement stone structure is characterized by high density, uniformity, and consolidation of hydrate formations
Kropyvnytska, T., Rucinska, T., Ivashchyshyn, H., Kotiv, R. (2019). Development of Eco-Efficient Composite Cements with High Early Strength. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 211–218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27011-7_27
Markiv, T., Sobol, K., Franus, M., Franus, W. (2016). Mechanical and durability properties of concretes incorporating natural zeolite. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 16 (4), 554–562. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2016.03.013
Sanytsky, M., Kropyvnytska, T., Kruts, T., Horpynko, O., Geviuk, I. (2018). Design of Rapid Hardening Quaternary Zeolite-Containing Portland-Composite Cements. Key Engineering Materials, 761, 193–196. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.761.193
Sanytsky, M., Kropyvnytska, T., Kotiv, R. (2014). Modified Plasters for Restoration and Finishing Works. Advanced Materials Research, 923, 42–47. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.923.42
Krivenko, P., Sanytsky, M., Kropyvnytska, T. (2018). Alkali-Sulfate Activated Blended Portland Cements. Solid State Phenomena, 276, 9–14. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.276.9
Krivenko, P., Petropavlovskyi, O., Kovalchuk, O., Lapovska, S., Pasko, A. (2018). Design of the composition of alkali activated portland cement using mineral additives of technogenic origin. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 4 (6 (94)), 6–15. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.140324
Kochetov, G., Prikhna, T., Kovalchuk, O., Samchenko, D. (2018). Research of the treatment of depleted nickelplating electrolytes by the ferritization method. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 3 (6 (93)), 52–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.133797
Fernández-Jiménez, A., Pastor, J. Y., Martín, A., Palomo, A. (2010). High-Temperature Resistance in Alkali-Activated Cement. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 93 (10), 3411–3417. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2010.03887.x
Xie, Y., Lin, X., Ji, T., Liang, Y., Pan, W. (2019). Comparison of corrosion resistance mechanism between ordinary Portland concrete and alkali-activated concrete subjected to biogenic sulfuric acid attack. Construction and Building Materials, 228, 117071. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117071
Krivenko, P., Petropavlovskyi, O., Kovalchuk, O. (2018). A comparative study on the influence of metakaolin and kaolin additives on properties and structure of the alkaliactivated slag cement and concrete. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (6 (91)), 33–39. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.119624
Krivenko, P. (2017). Why Alkaline Activation – 60 Years of the Theory and Practice of Alkali-Activated Materials. Journal of Ceramic Science and Technology, 8 (3), 323–334. doi: http://doi.org/10.4416/JCST2017-00042
DSTU B V.2.7-181:2009. Tsementy luzhni. Tekhnichni umovy (2009). Kyiv, 10.
Kryvenko, P., Runova, R., Rudenko, I., Skorik, V., Omelchuk, V. (2017). Analysis of plasticizer effectiveness during alkaline cement structure formation. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 4 (6 (88)), 35–41. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.106803
Yuan, X., Chen, W., Lu, Z., Chen, H. (2014). Shrinkage compensation of alkali-activated slag concrete and microstructural analysis. Construction and Building Materials, 66, 422–428. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.05.085
Fridrichová, M., Dvořák, K., Gazdič, D., Mokrá, J., Kulísek, K. (2016). Thermodynamic Stability of Ettringite Formed by Hydration of Ye’elimite Clinker. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2016, 1–7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9280131
Chen, K., Yang, C.-H., Yu, Z.-D. et. al. (2011). Effect of admixture on drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag mortar. Chongqing Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Chongqing University, 34, 38–40.
Bílek Jr., V., Pařízek, L., Kosár, P., Kratochvíl, J., Kalina, L. (2016). Strength and Porosity of Materials on the Basis of Blast Furnace Slag Activated by Liquid Sodium Silicate. Materials Science Forum, 851, 45–50. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/msf.851.45
Samchenko, S. V. (2016). Formirovanie i genezis struktury tsementnogo kamnya. Moscow: NIU MGSU, 284.
Omelchuk, V., Ye, G., Runova, R., Rudenko, I. I. (2018). Shrinkage Behavior of Alkali-Activated Slag Cement Pastes. Key Engineering Materials, 761, 45–48. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.761.45
Mora-Ruacho, J., Gettu, R., Aguado, A. (2009). Influence of shrinkage-reducing admixtures on the reduction of plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 39 (3), 141–146. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2008.11.011
Runova, R., Gots, V., Rudenko, I., Konstantynovskyi, O., Lastivka, O. (2018). The efficiency of plasticizing surfactants in alkali-activated cement mortars and concretes. MATEC Web of Conferences, 230, 03016. doi: https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201823003016
Rudenko, I. I., Konstantynovskyi, O. P., Kovalchuk, A. V., Nikolainko, M. V., Obremsky, D. V. (2018). Efficiency of Redispersible Polymer Powders in Mortars for Anchoring Application Based on Alkali Activated Portland Cements. Key Engineering Materials, 761, 27–30. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.761.27
Palacios, M., Houst, Y. F., Bowen, P., Puertas, F. (2009). Adsorption of superplasticizer admixtures on alkali-activated slag pastes. Cement and Concrete Research, 39 (8), 670–677. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2009.05.005
Najimi, M., Ghafoori, N., Sharbaf, M. (2019). Alkali-Activated Natural Pozzolan/Slag Binders: Limitation and Remediation. Magazine of Concrete Research, 1–48. doi: https://doi.org/10.1680/jmacr.18.00184
Bílek, V., Kalina, L., Novotný, R., Tkacz, J., Pařízek, L. (2016). Some Issues of Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures Application in Alkali-Activated Slag Systems. Materials, 9 (6), 462. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9060462
Bayliss, P., Kolitsch, U., Nickel, E. H., Pring, A. (2010). Alunite supergroup: recommended nomenclature. Mineralogical Magazine, 74(5), 919–927. doi: https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.2010.074.5.919
Plugin, A. A., Runova, R. F. (2018). Bonding Calcium Chloride and Calcium Nitrate into Stable Hydration Portland Cement Products: Stability Conditions of Calcium Hydrochloraluminates and Calcium Hydronitroaluminates. International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, 36, 69–73. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/jera.36.69
GOST Style Citations
Copyright (c) 2019 Pavlo Krivenko, Volodymyr Gots, Oleh Petropavlovskyi, Igor Rudenko, Oleksandr Konstantynovskyi, Artem Kovalchuk
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061