DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2020.204068

### Improving energy indicators of the charging station for electric vehicles based on a three-level active rectifier

Oleksandr Plakhtii, Volodymyr Nerubatskyi, Artem Mashura, Denys Hordiienko, Hryhorii Khoruzhevskyi

#### Abstract

A new structure of the charging station for electric vehicles has been proposed, which was developed on the basis of a three-phase transformer and a three-level active four-quadrant rectifier with the power factor correction. This paper describes the parameters of the proposed structure of the charging station and gives the parameters for the replacement circuit of the battery compartment in the electric car TESLA, model S, which was reduced to a single equivalent battery. We have described a method for fast charging the battery with constant current and constant voltage CC-CV, which ensures a greater number of battery charge-discharge cycles. The mathematical formulae have been given for calculating the power losses components and the efficiency of the proposed structure of the charging station over a full interval of the battery charge.

We have outlined a system of automated control over the charge current and voltage, which is based on the pulse-width modulation of the second order and an integrated regulator. The simulation model of the proposed structure of the charging station, built in the MATLAB/Simulink programming environment, has been presented, as well as the simulation results: the oscillograms of input and output currents and voltages, the dynamics of the charge current regulator operation. The polynomial approximation of the IGBT-modules energy characteristics aimed at calculating the static and dynamic losses in the power switches of an active rectifier has enabled the construction of a loss counter model.

It has been shown that increasing the value of a charge current under the CC mode decreases the resultant integrated value of the charge process efficiency, but, at the same time, the power factor increases and the emission of higher harmonics decreases. We have performed the optimization of power losses in the proposed system of the charging station based on the parameters of the minimal charge current and the modulation frequency in PWM.

Our analysis of the components of energy losses in the proposed structure has confirmed its energy efficiency in comparison with other existing structures. The advantage of the proposed structure is that it enables improved efficiency and power factor while lowering the emission of current higher harmonics. The following system indicators have been obtained: the integrated efficiency value of the electric car full charging process using a CC-CV method is 95.6 %, the power factor is 0.99, the total harmonic distortion coefficient of the input current is 2.5 %

#### Keywords

active rectifier; rechargeable battery; electric car charging station; power factor; simulation

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Copyright (c) 2020 Oleksandr Plakhtii, Volodymyr Nerubatskyi, Artem Mashura, Denys Hordiienko, Hryhorii Khoruzhevskyi