DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2014.21830

An introduction to knowledge computing

Vagan Terziyan, Oleksandr Shevchenko, Mariia Golovianko

Abstract


This paper deals with the challenges related to self-management and evolution of massive knowledge collections. We can assume that a self-managed knowledge graph needs a kind of a hybrid of: an explicit declarative self-knowledge (as knowledge about own properties and capabilities) and an explicit procedural self-knowledge (as knowledge on how to utilize own properties and the capabilities for the self-management).We offer an extension to a traditional RDF model of describing knowledge graphs according to the Semantic Web standards so that it will also allow to a knowledge entity to autonomously perform or query from remote services different computational executions needed. We also introduce the concepts of executable knowledge and knowledge computing on the basis of adding an executable property to traditionally used (datatype and object) properties within the RDF model. The knowledge represented with such an extended model we call as an executable knowledge, or the one which contains explicit (executable) instructions on how to manage itself. The appropriate process of the executable knowledge (self-)management we call as a Knowledge Computing. Unlike the knowledge answering machines, where computations over knowledge are used just for addressing a user query, the knowledge computing in addition provides computations for various self-management purposes. The paper also presents some pilot (proof-of-concept) implementation of the executable knowledge as a plug-in to Protégé ontology development environment.


Keywords


self-managed systems; knowledge; knowledge management; Semantic Web; knowledge ecosystems; executable knowledge; knowledge computing

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lyon, D. The Information Society: Issues and Illusions [Text] / D. Lyon. – Blackwell Publishers Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA, 1988. – 196 p.

Castells, M. The Rise of the Network Society [Text] / M. Castells. – Wiley-Blackwell, Second Edition, 2010.

Simard, A. Knowledge Markets: More than Providers and Users, Transactions on Advanced Research [Text] / A. Simard // IPSI BgD. – July 2006. – Vol. 2, No. 2. – P. 4–9.

Kelly, J. From Knowledge Management to Knowledge Ecosystem, In: Learn to Adapt Links [Electronic resource] / J. Kelly. – 17.10.2008. – Available at: http://learn2adapt.com/blog/2008/10/17/from-knowledge-management-to-knowledge-ecosystem.

Jenkins, H. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide [Text] / H. Jenkins. – NY Univ. Press, 2006. – 308 p.

Powell, W. W. The Knowledge Economy [Text] / W. W. Powell, K. Snellman // Annual Review of Sociology. – 2004. – Vol. 30. – P. 199–220.

Lee, T.-B. Linked Data [Electronic resource] / T.-B. Lee. – 27.07.2006. – Available at: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html.

Heath, T. Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space, Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology [Text] / T. Heath, C. Bizer. – Morgan & Claypool, 2011. – 136 p.

Cyganiak, R. Linking Open Data Cloud Diagram [Electronic resource] / R. Cyganiak, A. Jentzsch. – September 2011. – Available at: http://lod-cloud.net/.

Ankolekar, A. The Two Cultures: Mashing Up Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web [Text] : Proceedings of the 16th International Conference / A. Ankolekar, M. Krotzsch, T. Tran, D. Vrandecic // Conference on World Wide Web (WWW ‘07). – ACM, NY, USA, 2007. – P. 825–834.

Zollo, M. Deliberate Learning and the Evolution of Dynamic Capabilities [Text] / M. Zollo, S. G. Winter // Organization Science. – May/June 2002. – Vol. 13, No. 3. – P. 339–351.

The Impact of the Crisis on ICT and ICT-Related Employment, In: OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) Report [Electronic resource] October 2009. – Available at: http://www.oecd.org/internet/interneteconomy/43969-700.pdf.

Fan, W. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Big Data, Streams and Heterogeneous Source Mining: Algorithms, Systems, Programming Models and Applications [Text] : The 18th ACM SIGKDD International Conference / W. Fan, A. Bifet, Q. Yang, P. Yu. Foreword // Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. – Beijing, China, August 12-16, 2012.

Heuser, L. Vision of a Web-Based Service Society, SAP Research Web pages [Electronic resource] / L. Heuser. – October 8, 2008. – Available at: http://en.sap.info/vision-of-a-web-based-service-society/11099.

Terziyan, V. Bridging Webs for Future Business: “Everything-as-a-User”, In: Presentation at Open Discussion: “Business through Technologies or Technologies through Business” during BUSTECH-2011 [Electronic resource] / V. Terziyan. – Rome, Italy, 29 September 2011. – Available at: http://www.iaria.org/conferences2011/filesBUSTECH11/Terziyan_ Rome_2011.pdf.

Ormala, E. (Nokia Vice-President), Innovation Calls for People. Changing Innovation Landscape: The Role of Business and Universities [Text] : Presentation / E. Ormala. – Jyvaskyla, Finland, 20.03.2012.

Weinberger, D. Too Big to Know. Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren’t the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room [Text] / D. Weinberger. – Basic Books Publisher, 1st Edition, January 2012. – 231 p.

Maracine, V. Dynamic Knowledge and Healthcare Knowledge Ecosystems [Text] / V. Maracine, E. Scarlat // Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management. – 2009. – Vol. 7, No. 1. – P. 99–110.

Autonomic Computing: An Overview: The 8 Elements, In: IBM Perspective on the State of Information Technology [Electronic resource] / Web Site of IBM Research. – Accessed 28 September, 2012. – Available at: http://www.research.ibm.com/autonomic/overview/elements.html.

Kim, M. From Product Lines to Self-Managed Systems: an Architecture-Based Runtime Reconfiguration Framework [Text] : Proceedings of the Workshop // Workshop on Design and Evolution of Autonomic Application Software (DEAS ‘05). – NY, USA, ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes. – July 2005. – Vol. 30, No. 4. – P. 1–7.

Kramer, J. Self-Managed Systems: an Architectural Challenge [Text] : International Conference on Software Engineering / J. Kramer, J. Magee; In: L. C. Briand, A. L. Wolf (Eds.) // ISCE 2007, Workshop on the Future of Software Engineering. – MN, USA, May 23-25, 2007. – P. 259–268.

Terziyan, V. Semantic Web Services for Smart Devices Based on Mobile Agents [Text] / V. Terziyan // International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies. – Idea Group. – April-June 2005. – Vol. 1, No. 2. – P. 43–55.

Terziyan, V. Knowledge Acquisition Based on Semantic Balance of Internal and External Knowledge [Text] / V. Terziyan, S. Puuronen; In: I. Imam, Y. Kondratoff, A. El-Dessouki, A. Moonis (Eds.) // Multiple Approaches to Intelligent Systems, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. – Springer-Verlag. – 1999. –Vol. 1611. – P. 353–361.

Wyk, G. V. A Postmodern Metatheory of Knowledge As a System [Text] / G. V. Wyk. – Trafford Publ., 2004. – 302 p.

Hollingdale, R. J. Western Philosophy: An Introduction [Text] / R. J. Hollingdale. – Kahn & Averill, 1979. – 166 p.

Bateson, G. Steps to an Ecology of Mind [Text] / G. Bateson. – C Jason Aronson Inc., Northvale, New Jersey, London, 1972. – 361 p.

Randles, M. Adjustable Deliberation of Self-Managing Systems [Text] : Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference / M. Randles, A. Taleb-Bendiab, P. Miseldine, A. Laws. – Conference on the Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, April 2005. – P. 449 – 456.

Green, D. Knowledge Management for a Postmodern Workforce: Rethinking Leadership Styles in the Public Sector [Text] / D. Green // Journal of Strategic Leadership. – 2008. – Vol. 1, No. 1. – P. 16–24.

Cofino, T. Towards Knowledge Management In Autonomic Systems [Text] : Proceedings of the Eighth IEEE International Symposium / T. Cofino, Y. Doganata, Y. Drissi, T. Fin, L. Kozakov, M. Laker // Symposium on Computers and Communication, June-July 2003. – P. 789–794.

Alferes, J. Dynamic Knowledge Representation and its Applications [Text] : Proceedings of the 9th International Conference / J. Alferes, L. Pereira, H. Przymusinska, T. Przymusinski, P. Quaresma // Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications (AIMSA ‘00). – Varna, Bulgaria, LNCS, Springer. –September 20-23, 2000. – Vol. 1904. – P. 1–10.

Brandao, S. Web Knowledge Representation with Autonomic Ontologies [Text] / S. Brandao, J. Oliveira, J. M. de Souza 32. Brandao, S. N. Autonomic Ontologies for Governamental Knowledge Base [Text] : The Ninth International Conference / S. N. Brandao, S. A. Rodrigues, T. Silva, L. Araujo, J. M. de Souza // Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems. – ICAS, March, 2013. – P. 96–102.

Haslhofer, B. DSNotify-detecting and fixing broken links in linked data sets [Text] : 20th International Workshop / B. Haslhofer, N. Popitsch // Database and Expert Systems Application. – DEXA’09, IEEE, August, 2009. – P. 89-93.

Umbrich, J. Towards dataset dynamics: Change frequency of linked open data sources [Text] / J. Umbrich, M. Hausenblas, A. Hogan, A. Polleres, S. Decker, 2010.

Passant, A. SparqlPuSH: Proactive Notification of Data Updates in RDF Stores Using PubSubHubbub [Text] / A. Passant, P. N. Mendes // SFSW, May 2010.

Alferes, J. A Language for Updating Logic Programs [Text] / J. Alferes, L. Pereira, H. Przymusinska, T. Przymusinski // Proceedings of the LPNMR’99, El Paso, Texas USA, LUPS, LNAI, Springer. – December 2-4, 1999. – Vol. 1730. – P. 162–176.

Berge, T. Procedural and Declarative Knowledge. An Evolutionary Perspective [Text] / T. Berge, R. Hezewijk // Theory & Psychology. – Sage Publications. – 1999. – Vol. 9, No. 5. – P. 605–624.

Knorr, M. Local Closed World Reasoning with Description Logics under the Well-Founded Semantics [Text] / M. Knorr, J. J. Alferes, P. Hitzler // Artificial Intelligence. – 2011. –Vol. 175, No. 9-10. – P. 1528–1554.

Horrocks, I. A proposal for an OWL rules language [Text] : Proceedings of the 13th Int. World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2004) / I. Horrocks, P. F. Patel-Schneider. – ACM, 2004. – P. 723–731.

Motik, B. Reconciling Description Logics and Rules [Text] / B. Motik, R. Rosati // Journal of the ACM. – 2010. – Vol. 57, No. 5.

Web Rule Language: Combining OWL and RuleML, W3C Member Submission [Electronic resource] 21 May 2004. – Available at: http://www.w3.org/Submission/SWRL/.

O’Connor, M. J. SQWRL: a Query Language for OWL [Text] : Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop / M. J. O’Connor, A. Das Chantilly // International Workshop on OWL: Experiences and Directions (OWLED-2009) VA. – USA, 2009.

Minsky, M. A Framework for Representing Knowledge [Text] / M. Minsky; In: P. Winston (ed.). – The Psychology of Comp. Vision, McGraw-Hill, 1975.

Schank, R. C. Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Hillsdale [Text] / R. C. Schank, R. P. Abelson. – N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977.

Bobrow, D. G. An Overview of KRL, a Knowledge Representation Language [Text] / D. G. Bobrow // Cognitive Science. – 1977. – Vol. 1, No. 1. – P. 3–46.

Lassila, O. The Role of Frame-Based Representation on the Semantic Web, Knowledge Systems Laboratory Report KSL-01-02 [Text] / O. Lassila, D. McGuinness. – Stanford University, 2001.

Gibbins, N. Understanding Information Retrieval Systems Management [Text] : Resource Description Framework (RDF) / N. Gibbins, N. Shadbolt; In M. J. Bates (ed.). – Types and Standards, Auerbach Publications, 2011. – P. 659–670.

Borchert, R. How Can a Knowledge Base Run Executables on the Frame Level [Text] : Proceedings of the Sixth International Protégé Workshop / R. Borchert. – Manchester, England, 7-9 July, 2003.

Mota, L. O3F: an Object Oriented Ontology Framework [Text] : Proceedings of the 2nd International Joint Conference / L. Mota, L. Botelho, H. Mendes, A. Lopes // Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (AAMAS 2003). – Melbourne, Australia, 14-18 July, 2003. – P. 639–646.

Arroyo, S. Semantic Aspects of Web Services: Practical Handbook of Internet Computing [Text] / S. Arroyo, R. Lara, J. Gomez, D. Berka, Y. Ding, D. Fensel. – Chapman & Hall and CRC Press, 2004.

Ermolayev, V. Towards a Framework for Agent-Enabled Semantic Web Service Composition [Text] / V. Ermolayev, N. Keberle, S. Plaksin, O. Kononenko, V. Terziyan // International Journal of Web Services Research. – 2004. – Vol. 1, No. 3. – P. 63–87.

Martin, D. Bringing Semantics to Web Services with OWL-S [Text] / D. Martin, M. Burstein, D. McDermott, S. McIlraith, M. Paolucci, K. Sycara, D. L. McGuinness, E. Sirin, N. Srinivasan // World Wide Web, Springer. – 2007. – Vol. 10, No. 3. – P. 243–277.

Lara, R. A Conceptual Comparison of WSMO and OWL-S Web Services [Text] : Proceedings of the ECOWS-2004 / R. Lara, D. Roman, A. Polleres, D. Fensel // Lecture Notes in Computer Science. – Erfurt, Germany, Springer. – September 27-30, 2004. – Vol. 3250. – P. 254–269.

Dumitru, R. Web Service Modeling Ontology [Text] / R. Dumitru, U. Keller, H. Lausen, J. de Bruijn, R. Lara, M. Stollberg, A. Polleres, C. Feier, C. Bussler, D. Fensel // Applied Ontology, IOS Press. – 2005. – Vol. 1, No. 1. – P. 77–106.

Sivashanmugam, K. Adding Semantics to Web Services Standards [Text] : Proceedings of the International Conference / K. Sivashanmugam, K. Verma, A. Sheth, J. Miller // Conference on Web Services (ICWS-2003). – Las Vegas, USA, June 23-26, 2003. – P. 395–401.

Akkiraju, R. Web Service Semantics – WSDL-S [Electronic resource] / R. Akkiraju, J. Farrell, J. Miller, M. Nagarajan, M. Schmidt, A. Sheth, K. Verma // The Joint UGA-IBM Technical Note, Ver. 1.0, April 18, 2005. – Available at: http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/projects/METEOR-S/WSDL-S.

Verma, K. Semantically Annotating a Web Service [Text] / K. Verma, A. Sheth // IEEE Internet Computing. – March-April 2007. – Vol. 11, No. 2. – P. 83–85.

Sheth, K. SA-REST: Semantically Interoperable and Easier-to-Use Services and Mashups [Text] / K. Sheth, J. Gomadam // Lathem Internet Computing, IEEE. – 2007. – Vol. 11, No. 6. – P. 91–94.

Gessler, D. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services [Text] / D. Gessler, G. Schiltz, G. May, S. Avraham, C. Town, D. Grant, R. Nelson // BMC Bioinformatics. – 2009. – Vol. 10:309.

Terziyan, V. From Linked Data and Business Intelligence to Executable Reality [Text] / V. Terziyan, O. Kaykova // International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems. – 2012. – Vol. 5, No. 1&2. – P. 194–208.

Katasonov, A. Semantic Agent Programming Language (S-APL): A Middleware Platform for the Semantic Web [Text] : Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC-2008) / A. Katasonov, V. Terziyan // International Workshop on Middleware for the Semantic Web. – Santa Clara, CA, USA, IEEE CS Press, August 4-7, 2008. – P. 504–511.

Nikolov, A. Data linking: Capturing and utilising implicit schema-level relations [Text] / A. Nikolov, V. Uren, E. Motta, 2010.

Tiihonen, T. How to Create Trust, In the Presentation during the Tempus Information Days Helsinki [Electronic resource] / T. Tiihonen. – November 22, 2011. – Available at: http://www.cimo.fi/instancedata/prime_product_julkaisu/cimo/embeds/cimowwwstructure/22799_TRUST_Tempus_Timo_Tiihonen.pdf .

Terziyan, V. TRUST: Towards Trust in Quality Assurance Systems. Brief Introduction of the Project Idea, In the Presentation during the: TRUST (516935-TEMPUS-1-2011) [Electronic resource] / V. Terziyan // Project Coordination Meeting. – Kiev, Ukraine, October 20, 2011. – Available at: http://www.cs.jyu.fi/ai/Quality-2.ppt.

Klymova, M. Ontology-Based Portal for National Educational and Scientific Resources Management [Electronic resource] / M. Klymova // In the Presentation during the: Universities Nationwide IT Days (IT-2007). – Jyvaskyla, Finland. – November 1, 2007. – Available at: http://www.cs.jyu.fi/ai/OntoPortal-2007.ppt.

Web Site of the Ukrainian National Ontology-Based Portal for Management of Educational and Scientific Resources [Electronic resource] TRUST: National Portal for the QA in Higher Education. – 2009-2014. – Available at: http://ailab.kture.kharkov.ua/site/index.html and the latest operational version at: http://portal.dovira.eu/.

Muhleisen, H. On Self-Organized Semantic Storage [Text] / H. Muhleisen, T. Walther, R. Tolksdorf, A Survey // International Journal of Web Information Systems. – Emerald Group Publishing. – 2011. – Vol. 7, No. 3. – P. 205–222.

Lyon, D. (1988). The Information Society: Issues and Illusions. Blackwell Publishers Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA, 196.

Castells, M. (2010). The Rise of the Network Society. Wiley-Blackwell, Second Edition.

Simard, A. (July 2006). Knowledge Markets: More than Providers and Users, Transactions on Advanced Research. IPSI BgD, Vol. 2, No. 2, 4–9.

Kelly, J. (17.10.2008). From Knowledge Management to Knowledge Ecosystem, In: Learn to Adapt Links. Available at: http://learn2adapt.com/blog/2008/10/17/from-knowledge-managementto-knowledge-ecosystem.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. NY Univ. Press, 308.

Powell, W. W., Snellman, K. (2004). The Knowledge Economy. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 30, 199–220.

Lee, T.-B. (27.07.2006). Linked Data. Available at: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html.

Heath, T., Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space, Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology. Morgan & Claypool, 136.

Cyganiak, R., Jentzsch, A. (September 2011). Linking Open Data Cloud Diagram. Available at: http://lod-cloud.net/.

Ankolekar A., Krotzsch, M., Tran, T., Vrandecic, D. (2007). The Two Cultures: Mashing Up Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW ‘07). ACM, NY, USA, 825–834.

Zollo, M., Winter, S. G. (May/June 2002). Deliberate Learning and the Evolution of Dynamic Capabilities. Organization Science, Vol. 13, No. 3, 339–351.

The Impact of the Crisis on ICT and ICT-Related Employment, In: OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) Report (October 2009). Available at: http://www.oecd.org/internet/interneteconomy/43969700.pdf.

Fan, W., Bifet, A., Yang, Q., Foreword, P. Yu. (August 12-16, 2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Big Data, Streams and Heterogeneous Source Mining: Algorithms, Systems, Programming Models and Applications. The 18th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Beijing, China.

Heuser, L. (October 8, 2008). Vision of a Web-Based Service Society, SAP Research Web pages. Available at: http://en.sap.info/vision-ofa-web-based-service-society/11099.

Terziyan, V. (29 September, 2011). Bridging Webs for Future Business: “Everything-as-a-User”, In: Presentation at Open Discussion: “Business through Technologies or Technologies through Business” during BUSTECH-2011. Italy. Available at: http://www.iaria.org/conferences2011/filesBUSTECH11/Terziyan_ Rome_2011.pdf.

Ormala, E. (20.03.2012). Nokia Vice-President. Innovation Calls for People. Changing Innovation Landscape: The Role of Business and Universities. Jyvaskyla, Finland.

Weinberger, D. (January 2012). Too Big to Know. Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren’t the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room. Basic Books Publisher, 1st Edition, 231.

Maracine, V., Scarlat, E. (2009). Dynamic Knowledge and Healthcare Knowledge Ecosystems. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 7, No. 1, 99–110.

Autonomic Computing: An Overview: The 8 Elements, In: IBM Perspective on the State of Information Technology. Web Site of IBM Research. Available at: http://www.research.ibm.com/autonomic/overview/elements.html. (accessed 28 September, 2012).

Kim, M., Jeong, J., Park, S. (July 2005). From Product Lines to Self-Managed Systems: an Architecture-Based Runtime Reconfiguration Framework. Proceedings of the Workshop on Design and Evolution of Autonomic Application Software (DEAS ‘05). NY, USA, ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1–7.

Kramer, J., Magee; J.; In: Briand, L. C., Wolf A. L. (May 23-25, 2007). Self-Managed Systems: an Architectural Challenge. International Conference on Software Engineering. ISCE 2007, Workshop on the Future of Software Engineering. MN, USA, 259–268.

Terziyan, V. (April-June 2005). Semantic Web Services for Smart Devices Based on Mobile Agents. International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies. Idea Group, Vol. 1, No. 2, 43–55.

Terziyan, V., Puuronen; S.; In: Imam, I., Kondratoff, Y., El-Dessouki, A., Moonis A. (1999). Knowledge Acquisition Based on Semantic Balance of Internal and External Knowledge. Multiple Approaches to Intelligent Systems, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer-Verlag, Vol. 1611, 353–361.

Wyk, G. V. (2004). A Postmodern Metatheory of Knowledge As a System. Trafford Publ., 302.

Hollingdale, R. J. (1979). Western Philosophy: An Introduction.Kahn & Averill, 166.

Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. C Jason Aronson Inc., Northvale, New Jersey, London, 361.

Randles, M., Taleb-Bendiab, A., Miseldine, P., Laws, A. (April 2005). Adjustable Deliberation of Self-Managing Systems. Conference on the Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, 449 – 456.

Green, D. (2008). Knowledge Management for a Postmodern Workforce: Rethinking Leadership Styles in the Public Sector. Journal of Strategic Leadership, Vol. 1, No. 1, 16–24.

Cofino, T., Doganata, Y., Drissi, Y., Fin, T., Kozakov, L., Laker, M. (June-July 2003). Towards Knowledge Management In Autonomic Systems. Proceedings of the Eighth IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communication , 789–794.

Alferes, J., Pereira, L., Przymusinska, H., Przymusinski, T., Quaresma, P. (September 20-23, 2000). Dynamic Knowledge Representation and its Applications. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications (AIMSA ‘00). Varna, Bulgaria, LNCS, Springer, Vol. 1904, 1–10.

Brandao, S., Oliveira, J., de Souza, J. M. Web Knowledge Representation with Autonomic Ontologies.

Brandao, S. N., Rodrigues, S. A., Silva, T., Araujo, L., de Souza, J. M. (March, 2013). Autonomic Ontologies for Governamental Knowledge Base. The Ninth International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems. ICAS, 96–102.

Haslhofer, B., Popitsch, N. (August, 2009). DSNotify-detecting and fixing broken links in linked data sets. 20th International Workshop. Database and Expert Systems Application. DEXA’09, IEEE, 89-93.

Umbrich, J., Hausenblas, M., Hogan, A., Polleres, A., Decker, S. (2010). Towards dataset dynamics: Change frequency of linked open data sources.

Passant, A., Mendes, P. N. (May 2010). SparqlPuSH: Proactive Notification of Data Updates in RDF Stores Using PubSubHubbub. SFSW.

Alferes, J., Pereira, L., Przymusinska, H., Przymusinski T. (December 2-4, 1999). A Language for Updating Logic Programs. Proceedings of the LPNMR’99, El Paso, Texas USA, LUPS, LNAI, Springer, Vol. 1730, 162–176.

Berge, T., Hezewijk, R. (1999). Procedural and Declarative Knowledge. An Evolutionary Perspective. Theory & Psychology. Sage Publications, Vol. 9, No. 5, 605–624.

Knorr, M., Alferes, J. J., Hitzler, P. (2011). Local Closed World Reasoning with Description Logics under the Well-Founded Semantics. Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 175, No. 9-10, 1528–1554.

Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P. F. (2004). A proposal for an OWL rules language. Proceedings of the 13th Int. World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2004). ACM, 723–731.

Motik, B., Rosati, R. (2010). Reconciling Description Logics and Rules. Journal of the ACM, Vol. 57, No. 5.

Web Rule Language: Combining OWL and RuleML, W3C Member Submission (21 May 2004). Available at: http://www.w3.org/Submission/SWRL/.

O’Connor, M. J., Das Chantilly, A. (2009). SQWRL: a Query Language for OWL. Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on OWL: Experiences and Directions (OWLED-2009) VA. USA, .

Minsky, M.; In: Winston, P. (1975). A Framework for Representing Knowledge. The Psychology of Comp. Vision, McGraw-Hill. 44. Schank, R. C., Abelson, R. P. (1977). Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Hillsdale. N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bobrow, D. G. (1977). An Overview of KRL, a Knowledge Representation Language. Cognitive Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, 3–46.

Lassila, O., McGuinness, D. (2001). The Role of Frame-Based Representation on the Semantic Web, Knowledge Systems Laboratory Report KSL-01-02. Stanford University.

Gibbins, N., Shadbolt; N.; In: Bates, M. J. (2011). Understanding Information Retrieval Systems Management. Resource Description Framework. Types and Standards, Auerbach Publications, 659–670.

Borchert, R. (7-9 July, 2003). How Can a Knowledge Base Run Executables on the Frame Level. Proceedings of the Sixth International Protégé Workshop. Manchester, England.

Mota, L., Botelho, L., Mendes, H., Lopes A. (14-18 July, 2003). O3F: an Object Oriented Ontology Framework. Proceedings of the 2nd International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (AAMAS 2003). Melbourne, Australia, 639–646.

Arroyo, S., Lara, R., Gomez, J., Berka, D., Ding, Y., Fensel, D. (2004). Semantic Aspects of Web Services: Practical Handbook of Internet Computing. Chapman & Hall and CRC Press.

Ermolayev, V., Keberle, N., Plaksin, S., Kononenko, O., Terziyan V. (2004). Towards a Framework for Agent-Enabled Semantic Web Service Composition. International Journal of Web Services Research, Vol. 1, No. 3, 63–87.

Martin, D., Burstein, M., McDermott, D., McIlraith, S., Paolucci, M., Sycara, K., McGuinness, D. L., Sirin, E., Srinivasan N. (2007). Bringing Semantics to Web Services with OWL-S. World Wide Web, Springer, Vol. 10, No. 3, 243–277.

Lara, R., Roman, D., Polleres, A., Fensel D. (September 27-30, 2004). A Conceptual Comparison of WSMO and OWL-S Web Services. Proceedings of the ECOWS-2004. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Erfurt, Germany, Springer, Vol. 3250, 254–269.

Dumitru, R., Keller, U., Lausen, H., de Bruijn, J., Lara, R., Stollberg, M., Polleres, A., Feier, C., Bussler, C., Fensel, D. (2005). Web Service Modeling Ontology. Applied Ontology, IOS Press, Vol. 1, No. 1, 77–106.

Sivashanmugam, K., Verma, K., Sheth, A., Miller, J. (June 23-26, 2003). Adding Semantics to Web Services Standards. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Services (ICWS-2003). Las Vegas, USA, 395–401.

Akkiraju, R., Farrell, J., Miller, J., Nagarajan, M., Schmidt, M., Sheth, A., Verma K. (April 18, 2005). Web Service Semantics – WSDL-S. The Joint UGA-IBM Technical Note, Ver. 1.0. Available at: http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/projects/METEOR-S/WSDL-S.

Verma, K., Sheth, A. (March-April 2007). Semantically Annotating a Web Service. IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 11, No. 2, 83–85.

Sheth, K., Gomadam, J. (2007). SA-REST: Semantically Interoperable and Easier-to-Use Services and Mashups. Lathem Internet Computing, IEEE, Vol. 11, No. 6, 91–94.

Gessler, D., Schiltz, G., May, G., Avraham, S., Town, C., Grant, D., Nelson R. (2009). SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services. BMC Bioinformatics, Vol. 10:309.

Terziyan, V., Kaykova, O. (2012). From Linked Data and Business Intelligence to Executable Reality. International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems, Vol. 5, No. 1&2, 194–208.

Katasonov, A., Terziyan, V. (August 4-7, 2008). Semantic Agent Programming Language (S-APL): A Middleware Platform for the Semantic Web. Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC-2008) International Workshop on Middleware for the Semantic Web. Santa Clara, CA, USA, IEEE CS Press, 504–511.

Nikolov, A., Uren, V., Motta, E. (2010). Data linking: Capturing and utilising implicit schema-level relations.

Tiihonen, T. (November 22, 2011). How to Create Trust, In the Presentation during the Tempus Information Days Helsinki . Available at: http://www.cimo.fi/instancedata/prime_product_julkaisu/cimo/embeds/cimowwwstructure/22799_TRUST_Tempus_Timo_Tiihonen.pdf .

Terziyan, V. (October 20, 2011). TRUST: Towards Trust in Quality Assurance Systems. Brief Introduction of the Project Idea, In the Presentation during the: TRUST (516935-TEMPUS-1-2011). Project Coordination Meeting. Kiev, Ukraine. Available at: http://www.cs.jyu.fi/ai/Quality-2.ppt.

Klymova, M. (November 1, 2007). Ontology-Based Portal for National Educational and Scientific Resources Management. In the Presentation during the: Universities Nationwide IT Days (IT-2007). Jyvaskyla, Finland. Available at: http://www.cs.jyu.fi/ai/OntoPortal-2007.ppt.

Web Site of the Ukrainian National Ontology-Based Portal for Management of Educational and Scientific Resources (2009-2014). TRUST: National Portal for the QA in Higher Education. Available at: http://ailab.kture.kharkov.ua/site/index.html and the latest operational version at: http://portal.dovira.eu/.

Muhleisen, H., Walther, T., Tolksdorf, R. (2011). A Survey On Self-Organized Semantic Storage. International Journal of Web Information Systems. Emerald Group Publishing, Vol. 7, No. 3, 205–222.


GOST Style Citations








Copyright (c) 2014 Vagan Terziyan, Oleksandr Shevchenko, Mariia Golovianko

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061