The influence of different drying methods on the quality attributes of beetroots

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2022.258049

Keywords:

beetroot, heat pump drying, rehydration ratio, total phenolic content, betalain

Abstract

Beetroot is recognized as a health-promoting vegetable due to its abundant source of bioactive compounds. Drying methods significantly influence the quality of products. Therefore, it is important to choose a suitable drying method to obtain high quality of dried beetroots. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different drying methods on the quality attributes of beetroots. Fresh beetroots were dehydrated by freeze drying (FD), heat pump drying (HPD), vacuum drying (VD), microwave drying (MD) and microwave vacuum drying (MVD), respectively. The drying time, final moisture content, rehydration ratio, color, microstructure, betalain content and total flavonoids content of beetroots prepared by different drying methods were analyzed. The results showed that MVD and MD were superior to VD, HPD and FD in terms of drying time. The drying time (0.77±0.03 h) of MD was reduced by 97.40 % compared with FD, which was only 9.83 % of VD and 11.27 % of HPD. No significant differences in the final moisture content among beetroots dried using different drying methods were observed. Beetroots dried by FD showed the most desirable color and porous structure. Besides, beetroots dried by MVD exhibited the largest rehydration ratio, while the lowest rehydration ratio appeared in the beetroots obtained using MD. In addition, beetroots prepared by HPD illustrated the highest contents of betacyanin, betaxanthin and total flavonoids, which were 5.48±0.03 mg/g, 2.40±0.02 mg/g and 24.71±0.47 mg rutin equivalent/g, respectively. These results identify that it is difficult to achieve the best quality dried beetroots using a single drying method. Therefore, considering the quality attributes, the combined drying method (HPD+MVD) would be a very promising alternative method for obtaining dehydrated beetroots

Supporting Agency

  • Sincere gratitude to Guangxi Key Laboratory of Health Care Food Science and Technology, and Hezhou Key Laboratory of Microwave Application Technology for providing laboratory facilities and technical support during this research work. This study was funded by Guangxi First-class Discipline Food Science and Engineering Cultivation Project (GXYLXKP1816).

Author Biographies

Yan Liu, Hezhou University; Sumy National Agrarian University

Postgraduate Student, Assistant Researcher

School of Food and Biological Engineering

Department of Engineering Technologies for Food Production

Sergei Sabadash, Sumy National Agrarian University

PhD, Associate Professor

Department of Engineering Technologies for Food Production

Zhenhua Duan, Hezhou University

PhD, Professor

School of Food and Biological Engineering

Chunli Deng, Sumy National Agrarian University; Hezhou University

Postgraduate Student, Assistant Researcher

School of Food and Biological Engineering

References

  1. Chhikara, N., Kushwaha, K., Sharma, P., Gat, Y., Panghal, A. (2019). Bioactive compounds of beetroot and utilization in food processing industry: A critical review. Food Chemistry, 272, 192–200. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.022
  2. Fu, Y., Shi, J., Xie, S.-Y., Zhang, T.-Y., Soladoye, O. P., Aluko, R. E. (2020). Red Beetroot Betalains: Perspectives on Extraction, Processing, and Potential Health Benefits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 68 (42), 11595–11611. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c04241
  3. Hadipour, E., Taleghani, A., Tayarani‐Najaran, N., Tayarani‐Najaran, Z. (2020). Biological effects of red beetroot and betalains: A review. Phytotherapy Research, 34 (8), 1847–1867. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6653
  4. De Oliveira, S. P. A., do Nascimento, H. M. A., Sampaio, K. B., de Souza, E. L. (2020). A review on bioactive compounds of beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris) with special emphasis on their beneficial effects on gut microbiota and gastrointestinal health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 61 (12), 2022–2033. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1768510
  5. Kaur, S., Kaur, N., Aggarwal, P., Grover, K. (2020). Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and color retention of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) powder: Effect of steam blanching with refrigeration and storage. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 45 (3), e15247. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.15247
  6. Preethi, R., Deotale, S. M., Moses, J. A., Anandharamakrishnan, C. (2020). Conductive hydro drying of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L) pulp: Insights for natural food colorant applications. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 43 (12), e13557. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.13557
  7. Paula, R. R., Vimercati, W. C., Araújo, C. da S., Macedo, L. L., Teixeira, L. J. Q., Saraiva, S. H. (2020). Drying kinetics and physicochemical properties of whey dried by foam mat drying. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 44 (10). doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14796
  8. Köprüalan, Ö., Altay, Ö., Bodruk, A., Kaymak-Ertekin, F. (2021). Effect of hybrid drying method on physical, textural and antioxidant properties of pumpkin chips. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 15 (4), 2995–3004. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-021-00866-1
  9. Chua, K. J., Chou, S. K., Ho, J. C., Hawlader, M. N. A. (2002). Heat pump drying: Recent developments and future trends. Drying Technology, 20 (8), 1579–1610. doi: https://doi.org/10.1081/drt-120014053
  10. Yu, Y. Y., Tang, D. B., Wen, J., Wu, J. J., An, K. J., Zou, Y. (2020). Comparison of dried Alpinia officinarum hance quality dried at different heat pump temperatures. Modern Food Science and Technology, 36 (2), 63–69. doi: https://doi.org/10.13982/j.mfst.1673-9078.2020.2.010
  11. Hou, H., Chen, Q., Bi, J., Wu, X., Jin, X., Li, X. et. al. (2020). Understanding appearance quality improvement of jujube slices during heat pump drying via water state and glass transition. Journal of Food Engineering, 272, 109874. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2019.109874
  12. Jokiel, M., Bantle, M., Kopp, C., Halvorsen Verpe, E. (2020). Modelica-based modelling of heat pump-assisted apple drying for varied drying temperatures and bypass ratios. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 19, 100575. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsep.2020.100575
  13. Tunckal, C., Doymaz, İ. (2020). Performance analysis and mathematical modelling of banana slices in a heat pump drying system. Renewable Energy, 150, 918–923. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.01.040
  14. Thorat, I. D., Mohapatra, D., Sutar, R. F., Kapdi, S. S., Jagtap, D. D. (2010). Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Study on Thin-Layer Vacuum Drying of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale R.) Slices. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5 (4), 1379–1383. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0429-y
  15. Kumar, P. S., Sagar, V. R. (2012). Drying kinetics and physico-chemical characteristics of Osmo- dehydrated Mango, Guava and Aonla under different drying conditions. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51 (8), 1540–1546. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0658-3
  16. Beigi, M., Ahmadi, I. (2019). Artificial neural networks modeling of kinetic curves of celeriac (Apium graveolens L.) in vacuum drying. Food Science and Technology, 39, 35–40. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.35717
  17. Liu, C., Pirozzi, A., Ferrari, G., Vorobiev, E., Grimi, N. (2019). Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields on Vacuum Drying and Quality Characteristics of Dried Carrot. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 13 (1), 45–52. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-019-02364-1
  18. Tekin Cakmak, Z. H., Kayacan Cakmakoglu, S., Avcı, E., Sagdic, O., Karasu, S. (2021). Ultrasound‐assisted vacuum drying as alternative drying method to increase drying rate and bioactive compounds retention of raspberry. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 45 (12). doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.16044
  19. Jin, W., Mujumdar, A. S., Zhang, M., Shi, W. (2017). Novel Drying Techniques for Spices and Herbs: a Review. Food Engineering Reviews, 10 (1), 34–45. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-017-9165-7
  20. Vadivambal, R., Jayas, D. S. (2008). Non-uniform Temperature Distribution During Microwave Heating of Food Materials – A Review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 3 (2), 161–171. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-008-0136-0
  21. Figiel, A. (2010). Drying kinetics and quality of beetroots dehydrated by combination of convective and vacuum-microwave methods. Journal of Food Engineering, 98 (4), 461–470. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.01.029
  22. Székely, D., Vidák, K., Furulyás, D., Ribárszki, Á., Stéger-Máté, M. (2019). Effect of Drying Methods on Physicochemical Parameters of Different Red Beetroots (Beta vulgaris L.) Species. Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering. doi: https://doi.org/10.3311/ppch.13104
  23. Nistor, O.-V., Seremet (Ceclu), L., Andronoiu, D. G., Rudi, L., Botez, E. (2017). Influence of different drying methods on the physicochemical properties of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. Cylindra). Food Chemistry, 236, 59–67. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.129
  24. Kerr, W. L., Varner, A. (2019). Chemical and physical properties of vacuum-dried red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) powders compared to other drying methods. Drying Technology, 38 (9), 1165–1174. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2019.1619573
  25. Bozkir, H., Ergün, A. R. (2020). Effect of sonication and osmotic dehydration applications on the hot air drying kinetics and quality of persimmon. LWT, 131, 109704. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109704
  26. Wang, J., Fang, X.-M., Mujumdar, A. S., Qian, J.-Y., Zhang, Q., Yang, X.-H. et. al. (2017). Effect of high-humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) on drying and quality of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Food Chemistry, 220, 145–152. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.200
  27. Pathare, P. B., Opara, U. L., Al-Said, F. A.-J. (2012). Colour Measurement and Analysis in Fresh and Processed Foods: A Review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6 (1), 36–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0867-9
  28. Bárta, J., Bártová, V., Šindelková, T., Jarošová, M., Linhartová, Z., Mráz, J. et. al. (2020). Effect of Boiling on Colour, Contents of Betalains and Total Phenolics and on Antioxidant Activity of Colourful Powder Derived from Six Different Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) Cultivars. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. doi: https://doi.org/10.31883/pjfns/128613
  29. Stintzing, F. C., Herbach, K. M., Mosshammer, M. R., Carle, R., Yi, W., Sellappan, S. et. al. (2004). Color, Betalain Pattern, and Antioxidant Properties of Cactus Pear (Opuntia spp.) Clones. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53 (2), 442–451. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048751y
  30. De Souza, V. R., Pereira, P. A. P., da Silva, T. L. T., de Oliveira Lima, L. C., Pio, R., Queiroz, F. (2014). Determination of the bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Brazilian blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, blueberry and sweet cherry fruits. Food Chemistry, 156, 362–368. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.125
  31. Srikanth, K. S., Sharanagat, V. S., Kumar, Y., Bhadra, R., Singh, L., Nema, P. K., Kumar, V. (2019). Convective drying and quality attributes of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius). LWT, 99, 8–16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.09.049
  32. Bromberger Soquetta, M., Schmaltz, S., Wesz Righes, F., Salvalaggio, R., de Marsillac Terra, L. (2017). Effects of pretreatment ultrasound bath and ultrasonic probe, in osmotic dehydration, in the kinetics of oven drying and the physicochemical properties of beet snacks. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42 (1), e13393. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13393
  33. Ravichandran, K., Saw, N. M. M. T., Mohdaly, A. A. A., Gabr, A. M. M., Kastell, A., Riedel, H. et. al. (2013). Impact of processing of red beet on betalain content and antioxidant activity. Food Research International, 50 (2), 670–675. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.07.002
  34. Jin, W., Zhang, M., Shi, W. (2019). Evaluation of ultrasound pretreatment and drying methods on selected quality attributes of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.). Drying Technology, 37 (3), 387–396. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2018.1458735
  35. Ng, M. L., Sulaiman, R. (2018). Development of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) powder using foam mat drying. LWT, 88, 80–86. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.08.032
  36. Seremet (Ceclu), L., Nistor, O.-V., Andronoiu, D. G., Mocanu, G. D., Barbu, V. V., Maidan, A. et. al. (2020). Development of several hybrid drying methods used to obtain red beetroot powder. Food Chemistry, 310, 125637. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125637
  37. Paciulli, M., Medina-Meza, I. G., Chiavaro, E., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. (2016). Impact of thermal and high pressure processing on quality parameters of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.). LWT - Food Science and Technology, 68, 98–104. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.12.029
  38. Si, X., Chen, Q., Bi, J., Wu, X., Yi, J., Zhou, L., Li, Z. (2015). Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96 (6), 2055–2062. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7317
  39. Kerr, W. L., Varner, A. (2019). Vacuum Belt Dehydration of Chopped Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) and Optimization of Powder Production Based on Physical and Chemical Properties. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 12 (12), 2036–2049. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-019-02351-6
  40. Chen, Q., Li, Z., Bi, J., Zhou, L., Yi, J., Wu, X. (2017). Effect of hybrid drying methods on physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of dried black mulberry. LWT, 80, 178–184. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.02.017
  41. Ma, Q., Bi, J., Yi, J., Wu, X., Li, X., Zhao, Y. (2021). Stability of phenolic compounds and drying characteristics of apple peel as affected by three drying treatments. Food Science and Human Wellness, 10 (2), 174–182. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2021.02.006
  42. Vadivambal, R., Jayas, D. S. (2007). Changes in quality of microwave-treated agricultural products – a review. Biosystems Engineering, 98 (1), 1–16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2007.06.006
  43. Feng, L., Xu, Y., Xiao, Y., Song, J., Li, D., Zhang, Z. et. al. (2021). Effects of pre-drying treatments combined with explosion puffing drying on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and flavor characteristics of apples. Food Chemistry, 338, 128015. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128015
  44. Wruss, J., Waldenberger, G., Huemer, S., Uygun, P., Lanzerstorfer, P., Müller, U. et. al. (2015). Compositional characteristics of commercial beetroot products and beetroot juice prepared from seven beetroot varieties grown in Upper Austria. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 42, 46–55. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2015.03.005
  45. Hamid, M. G., Mohamed Nour, A. A. A. (2018). Effect of different drying methods on quality attributes of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) slices. World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 15 (3), 287–298. doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/wjstsd-11-2017-0043

Downloads

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Liu, Y., Sabadash, S., Duan, Z., & Deng, C. (2022). The influence of different drying methods on the quality attributes of beetroots . Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 3(11 (117), 60–68. https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2022.258049

Issue

Section

Technology and Equipment of Food Production

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>