DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.97371

The electrochemical cathodic template synthesis of nickel hydroxide thin films for electrochromic devices: role of temperature

Valerii Kotok, Vadym Kovalenko

Abstract


The influence of temperature on the synthesis of Ni(OH)2 electrochromic films prepared using the cathodic template method has been investigated.

The influence of deposition temperature on the morphology of nickel hydroxide films has been determined. By means of scanning electron and atomic-force microscopy, it has been established that surface morphology depends on deposition temperature. The flattest film surface corresponded to a deposition temperature of 30 °С, which indicated high optical properties. The maximum profile shift of films deposited at different temperatures was 400nM, while for the film deposited at 30 °С – 212 nM.

By means of X-ray diffraction, it has been established that all films have crystal lattice similar to α-Ni(OH)2, with a high number of defectsв. It also has been discovered that at a deposition temperature of 20–60 °С, a peak at 2q=16° appears on the diffraction pattern, the highest intensity of which corresponds to the process temperature of 30–40 °С.

By means of cyclic voltamperometry and recording of transmittance changes, it has been demonstrated that nickel hydroxide film deposited at 30 °С has the best electrochemical and optical properties. A partial correlation between optical and electrochemical properties of films deposited at different temperatures has been noted. 


Keywords


nickel hydroxide; Ni(OH)2; electrochromism; electrodeposition; cathodic template synthesis; polyvinyl alcohol

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References


Kovalenko, V., Kotok, V., Bolotin, O. (2016). Definition of factors influencing on Ni(OH)2 electrochemical characteristics for supercapacitors. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 5 (6 (83)), 17–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2016.79406

Lei, L., Hu, M., Gao, X., Sun, Y. (2008). The effect of the interlayer anions on the electrochemical performance of layered double hydroxide electrode materials. Electrochimica Acta, 54 (2), 671–676. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2008.07.004

Kovalenko, V. L., Kotok, V. A., Sykchin, A. A., Mudryi, I. A., Ananchenko, B. A., Burkov, A. A. et. al. (2016). Nickel hydroxide obtained by high-temperature two-step synthesis as an effective material for supercapacitor applications. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 21 (3), 683–691. doi: 10.1007/s10008-016-3405-2

Kotok, V., Кovalenko, V. (2017). Optimization of nickel hydroxide electrode of the hybrid supercapacitor. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (6 (85)), 4–9. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90810

Solovov, V., Kovalenko, V., Nikolenko, N., Kotok, V., Vlasova, E. (2017). Influence of temperature on the characteristics of Ni(II), Ti(IV) layered double hydroxides synthesised by different methods. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (6 (85)), 16–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90873

Huang, J.-J., Hwang, W.-S., Weng, Y.-C., Chou, T.-C. (2010). Transformation Characterization of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH in Ni-Pt Films Using an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Ethanol Sensors. Materials Transactions, 51 (12), 2294–2303. doi: 10.2320/matertrans.m2010079

Wen, R.-T., Granqvist, C. G., Niklasson, G. A. (2016). Corrigendum: Anodic Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Thin Films: Decay of Charge Density upon Extensive Electrochemical Cycling. ChemElectroChem, 3 (4), 675–675. doi: 10.1002/celc.201600127

Niklasson, G. A., Granqvist, C. G. (2007). Electrochromics for smart windows: thin films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide, and devices based on these. J. Mater. Chem., 17 (2), 127–156. doi: 10.1039/b612174h

Verrengia, J. (2010). Smart Windows: Energy Efficiency with a View. NREL. Available at: http://www.nrel.gov/news/features/feature_detail.cfm/feature_id=1555

Park, S.-I., Quan, Y.-J., Kim, S.-H., Kim, H., Kim, S., Chun, D.-M. et. al. (2016). A review on fabrication processes for electrochromic devices. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, 3 (4), 397–421. doi: 10.1007/s40684-016-0049-8

Fasaki, I., Koutoulaki, A., Kompitsas, M., Charitidis, C. (2010). Structural, electrical and mechanical properties of NiO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Applied Surface Science, 257 (2), 429–433. doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.07.006

Wen, R.-T., Granqvist, C. G., Niklasson, G. A. (2014). Cyclic voltammetry on sputter-deposited films of electrochromic Ni oxide: Power-law decay of the charge density exchange. Applied Physics Letters, 105 (16), 163502. doi: 10.1063/1.4899069

Vidaleshurtado, M., Mendozagalvan, A. (2008). Electrochromism in nickel oxide-based thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition. Solid State Ionics, 197 (35-36), 2065–2068. doi: 10.1016/j.ssi.2008.07.003

Korosec, R. C., Bukovec, P. (2006). Sol-Gel Prepared NiO Thin Films for Electrochromic Applications. Acta Chim. Slov., 53, 136–147.

Sharma, R., Acharya, A. D., Shrivastava, S. B., Shripathi, T., Ganesan, V. (2014). Preparation and characterization of transparent NiO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique. Optik – International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, 125 (22), 6751–6756. doi: 10.1016/j.ijleo.2014.07.104

Chigane, M. (1994). Enhanced Electrochromic Property of Nickel Hydroxide Thin Films Prepared by Anodic Deposition. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 141 (12), 3439. doi: 10.1149/1.2059350

Koussi-Daoud, S., Pauporte, T. (2015). Electrochemical deposition and characterizations of adherent NiO porous films for photovoltaic applications. Oxide-Based Materials and Devices VI. doi: 10.1117/12.2175921

Kotok, V. A., Kovalenko, V. L., Ananchenko, B. А., Levko, E. N. (2014). The deposition of electrochromic film based on nikel hydroxide by electrochemical method. XV International scientific conference «New Technologies and achievements in metallurgy, materials engineering and production engineering». Czestochowa, 448–452.

Kotok, V. A., Malahova, E. V., Kovalenko, V. L., Baramzin, M. N., Kovalenko, P. V. (2016). Smart windows: cation internal and anion external activation for electrochromic films of nickel hydroxide. International forum for science and engineering students (IFSES). Guadalajara.

Jayashree, R. S., Kamath, P. V. (1999). Factors governing the electrochemical synthesis of a-nickel (II) hydroxide. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 29 (4), 449–454. doi: 10.1023/a:1003493711239


GOST Style Citations


Kovalenko, V. Definition of factors influencing on Ni(OH)2 electrochemical characteristics for supercapacitors [Text] / V. Kovalenko, V. Kotok, O. Bolotin // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. – 2016. – Vol. 5, Issue 6 (83). – P. 17–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2016.79406 

Lei, L. The effect of the interlayer anions on the electrochemical performance of layered double hydroxide electrode materials [Text] / L. Lei, M. Hu, X. Gao, Y. Sun // Electrochimica Acta. – 2008. – Vol. 54, Issue 2. – P. 671–676. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2008.07.004 

Kovalenko, V. L. Nickel hydroxide obtained by high-temperature two-step synthesis as an effective material for supercapacitor applications [Text] / V. L. Kovalenko, V. A. Kotok, A. A. Sykchin, I. A. Mudryi, B. A. Ananchenko, A. A. Burkov et. al. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. – 2016. – Vol. 21, Issue 3. – P. 683–691. doi: 10.1007/s10008-016-3405-2 

Kotok, V. Optimization of nickel hydroxide electrode of the hybrid supercapacitor [Text] / V. Kotok, V. Кovalenko // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. – 2017. – Vol. 1, Issue 6 (85). – P. 4–9. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90810 

Solovov, V. Influence of temperature on the characteristics of Ni(II), Ti(IV) layered double hydroxides synthesised by different methods [Text] / V. Solovov, V. Kovalenko, N. Nikolenko, V. Kotok, E. Vlasova // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. – 2017. – Vol. 1, Issue 6 (85). – P. 16–22. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90873 

Huang, J.-J. Transformation Characterization of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH in Ni-Pt Films Using an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Ethanol Sensors [Text] / J.-J. Huang, W.-S. Hwang, Y.-C. Weng, T.-C. Chou // Materials Transactions. – 2010. – Vol. 51, Issue 12. – P. 2294–2303. doi: 10.2320/matertrans.m2010079 

Wen, R.-T. Corrigendum: Anodic Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Thin Films: Decay of Charge Density upon Extensive Electrochemical Cycling [Text] / R.-T. Wen, C. G. Granqvist, G. A. Niklasson // ChemElectroChem. – 2016. – Vol. 3, Issue 4. – P. 675–675. doi: 10.1002/celc.201600127 

Niklasson, G. A. Electrochromics for smart windows: thin films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide, and devices based on these [Text] / G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist // J. Mater. Chem. – 2007. – Vol. 17, Issue 2. – P. 127–156. doi: 10.1039/b612174h 

Verrengia, J. Smart Windows: Energy Efficiency with a View [Electronic resource] / J. Verrengia // NREL. – 2010. – Available at: http://www.nrel.gov/news/features/feature_detail.cfm/feature_id=1555

Park, S.-I. A review on fabrication processes for electrochromic devices [Text] / S.-I. Park, Y.-J. Quan, S.-H. Kim, H. Kim, S. Kim, D.-M. Chun et. al. // International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology. – 2016. – Vol. 3, Issue 4. – P. 397–421. doi: 10.1007/s40684-016-0049-8 

Fasaki, I. Structural, electrical and mechanical properties of NiO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition [Text] / I. Fasaki, A. Koutoulaki, M. Kompitsas, C. Charitidis // Applied Surface Science. – 2010. – Vol. 257, Issue 2. – P. 429–433. doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.07.006 

Wen, R.-T. Cyclic voltammetry on sputter-deposited films of electrochromic Ni oxide: Power-law decay of the charge density exchange [Text] / R.-T. Wen, C. G. Granqvist, G. A. Niklasson // Applied Physics Letters. – 2014. – Vol. 105, Issue 16. – P. 163502. doi: 10.1063/1.4899069 

Vidaleshurtado, M. Electrochromism in nickel oxide-based thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition [Text] / M. Vidaleshurtado, A. Mendozagalvan // Solid State Ionics. – 2008. – Vol. 197, Issue 35-36. – P. 2065–2068. doi: 10.1016/j.ssi.2008.07.003 

Korosec, R. C. Sol-Gel Prepared NiO Thin Films for Electrochromic Applications [Text] / R. C. Korosec, P. Bukovec // Acta Chim. Slov. – 2006. – Vol. 53. – P. 136–147.

Sharma, R. Preparation and characterization of transparent NiO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique [Text] / R. Sharma, A. D. Acharya, S. B. Shrivastava, T. Shripathi, V. Ganesan // Optik – International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. – 2014. – Vol. 125, Issue 22. – P. 6751–6756. doi: 10.1016/j.ijleo.2014.07.104 

Chigane, M. Enhanced Electrochromic Property of Nickel Hydroxide Thin Films Prepared by Anodic Deposition [Text] / M. Chigane // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. – 1994. – Vol. 141, Issue 12. – P. 3439. doi: 10.1149/1.2059350 

Koussi-Daoud, S. Electrochemical deposition and characterizations of adherent NiO porous films for photovoltaic applications [Text] / S. Koussi-Daoud, T. Pauporte // Oxide-based Materials and Devices VI. – 2015. doi: 10.1117/12.2175921 

Kotok, V. A. The deposition of electrochromic film based on nikel hydroxide by electrochemical method [Text] / V. A. Kotok, V. L. Kovalenko, B. А. Ananchenko, E. N. Levko // XV International scientific conference «New Technologies and achievements in metallurgy, materials engineering and production engineering». – Czestochowa, 2014. – Р. 448–452.

Kotok, V. A. Smart windows: cation internal and anion external activation for electrochromic films of nickel hydroxide [Text] / V. A. Kotok, E. V. Malahova, V. L. Kovalenko, M. N. Baramzin, P. V. Kovalenko // International forum for science and engineering students (IFSES). – Guadalajara, 2016.

Jayashree, R. S. Factors governing the electrochemical synthesis of a-nickel (II) hydroxide [Text] / R. S. Jayashree, P. V. Kamath // Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. – 1999. – Vol. 29, Issue 4. – P. 449–454. doi: 10.1023/a:1003493711239 







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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061