Development of a theoretical model for the intensification of technological processes for manufacturing dairy products
Keywords:theoretical modeling, thermodynamic potential, ionic calcium, micellar calcium, phase equilibrium, coagulation, conditions of stability, decalcification, cottage cheese, sour milk cheese
A dependence is established between the amount and forms of calcium in milk and its technological purpose. It is proven that a controlled reduction in the content of calcium in milk (specifically, its ionic form) increases thermal stability of milk in the range of lowered values of pH, which resolves the task on compatible use of milk and acid-containing raw materials (concentrates of juices and puree) in the composition of beverages. The substantiated increase of ionic calcium in milk also implements the principles of optimization of technological processes for its processing, in particular when producing cottage cheese. We constructed a theoretical model of the controlled intensified technologies of dairy products, underlying which is the quantitative and qualitative analysis of physical-chemical properties of the components of compounds in the system "milk", specifically calcium. It was proven that in line with the devised model the process of stabilization/destabilization of the colloidal state of the system "milk" is accompanied by the formation of a new phase under condition of introducing certain substances that can control the thermodynamical potential of the system. The model developed was verified in the course of implementation of the technological process for manufacturing skimmed milk with controlled thermal stability. It was proven that the introduction of sodium alginate to the system "milk" leads to a reduction of the undesirable potential through lowering and redistribution of calcium by forms.It is shown that a given effect is the result of decomposition of casein micelles into submicelles and it manifests itself by an increase in the resistance of the system to thermal influence. We tested the devised model in the course of implementation of the technological process for manufacturing cottage cheese. It was proven that the controlled regulation of the content of ionized calcium and pH of the system through blending the system "milk" with the transformed system (serum) in certain quantities makes it possible to intensify the technological process for manufacturing sour milk cheese and to obtain products with high organoleptic properties
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