Effect of welding sequence and welding current on distortion, mechanical properties and metallurgical observations of orbital pipe welding on SS 316L





welding sequence, orbital pipe welding, gas tungsten arc welding, distortion, SS 316L


Orbital pipe welding was often used to manufacture piping systems. In orbital pipe welding, a major challenge is the welding torch’s position during the welding process, so that additional methods are needed to overcome these challenges. This paper discusses the influence of welding sequence and welding current on distortion, mechanical properties and metallurgical observations in orbital pipe welding with SS 316L pipe square butt joints. The variation of the orbital pipe welding parameters used is welding current and welding sequence. The welding current used is 100 A, 110 A, and 120 A, while the welding sequence used is one sequence, two sequences, three sequences, and four sequences. The welding results will be analyzed from distortion measurement, mechanical properties test and metallurgical observations. Distortion measurements are made on the pipe before welding and after welding. Testing of mechanical properties includes tensile tests and microhardness tests, while metallurgical observations include macrostructure and microstructural observations. The results show that maximum axial distortion, transverse distortion, ovality, and taper occurred at a welding current of 120 A with four sequences of 445 µm, 300 µm, 195 µm, and 275 µm, respectively. The decrease in ultimate tensile strength is 51 % compared to the base metal’s ultimate tensile strength. Horizontal and vertical microhardness tests show that welding with one sequence produces the greatest microhardness value, but there is a decrease in the microhardness value using welding with two to four sequences. Orbital pipe welding results in different depths of penetration at each pipe position. The largest and smallest depth of penetration was 4.11 mm and 1.60 mm, respectively

Author Biographies

Agus Widyianto, Universitas Indonesia

Postgraduate Student

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Ario Sunar Baskoro, Universitas Indonesia

Doctorate, Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Gandjar Kiswanto, Universitas Indonesia

Doctorate, Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Muhamad Fathin Ginanjar Ganeswara, Universitas Indonesia

Department of Mechanical Engineering


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How to Cite

Widyianto, A., Baskoro, A. S., Kiswanto, G., & Ganeswara, M. F. G. . (2021). Effect of welding sequence and welding current on distortion, mechanical properties and metallurgical observations of orbital pipe welding on SS 316L. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2(12 (110), 22–31. https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.228161



Materials Science