Development of technologies for obtaining grain bases and special additives from local grain raw materials to make products of increased nutritional value
Keywords:grain crops, fine grinding, extrusion, micronization, germination, vitamin composition, mineral complex
The object of research reported in this paper is grain and leguminous crops of Kazakhstan.
Grains and leguminous crops, as well as products that are made from them, are of great importance in human nutrition because they are sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, some vitamins, and macro and microelements. They contain plant fibers, as well as a number of biologically active substances necessary for the normal functioning of the entire human body. At the same time, modern technologies for processing and manufacturing products from cereals are associated with significant losses of nutrients embedded in them by nature when producing refined products. The problem that needs to be solved is to study the impact exerted on grain crops by various processing techniques and to propose the most optimal ones that make it possible to maximally preserve the nutrients of grain raw materials laid down by nature.
A comparative study of the following grain processing techniques was carried out: micronization, extrusion, germination, and fine grinding. Processing modes have been proposed, which could significantly reduce the loss of useful substances of the grain.
The chemical and vitamin composition of processed products has been studied. It was established that fine grinding and extrusion processing are the most acceptable because they allowed the use of grain without separating the shells containing the main nutrients of the grain.
The suggested processing modes contribute to the production of grain bases and additives with the most optimal vitamin-mineral formulation.
This study's results contributed to a better understanding of the impact of the examined techniques for processing grains and legumes on the vitamin-mineral complex of the resulting products. Grain processing modes can be recommended for practical application.
- Shaimerdenova, D. A., Chakanova, J. M., Mahambetova, A. A., Iskakova, D. M., Yesmambetov, A. A. (2019). Methods for obtaining grain bases for food. Proceedings of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies, 81 (2), 230–238. doi: https://doi.org/10.20914/2310-1202-2019-2-230-238
- Shaimerdenova, D. A., Chakanova, Zh. M., Sultanova, M. Zh., Borovsky, A. Yu., Shaimerdenova, P. R., Abdrakhmanov, Kh. A. (2018). Instant cereals enriched with carboxylates. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(2.13), 140. doi: https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i2.13.11628
- Sarwar, H. (2013). The importance of cereals (Poaceae: Gramineae) nutrition in human health: A review. Journal of Cereals and Oilseeds, 4 (3), 32–35. doi: https://doi.org/10.5897/jco12.023
- Shaimerdenova, D. A., Chakanova, Zh. M., Iskakova, D. M., Sarbassova, G. T., Bekbolatova, M. B., Yesmambetov, A. A. (2020). JT Effective method of grain processing using in grain bases for foods: Methods of grain bases' production. EurAsian Journal of Biosciences, 14 (2), 6291–6302.
- Moreno, C. R., Fernández, P. C. R., Rodríguez, E. O. C., Carrillo, J. M., Rochín, S. M. (2018). Changes in Nutritional Properties and Bioactive Compounds in Cereals During Extrusion Cooking. Extrusion of Metals, Polymers and Food Products. doi: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.68753
- Koehler, P., Wieser, H. (2012). Chemistry of Cereal Grains. Handbook on Sourdough Biotechnology, 11–45. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5425-0_2
- Garg, M., Sharma, A., Vats, S., Tiwari, V., Kumari, A., Mishra, V., Krishania, M. (2021). Vitamins in Cereals: A Critical Review of Content, Health Effects, Processing Losses, Bioaccessibility, Fortification, and Biofortification Strategies for Their Improvement. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.586815
- Oghbaei, M., Prakash, J. (2016). Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2015.1136015
- Reddy, M. B., Love, M. (1999). The Impact of Food Processing on the Nutritional Quality of Vitamins and Minerals. Impact of Processing on Food Safety, 99–106. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4853-9_7
- Ahmed, J. (2021). Emerging technologies for pulse processing. Pulse Foods, 265–293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-818184-3.00011-8
- Nayak, B., Liu, R. H., Tang, J. (2015). Effect of Processing on Phenolic Antioxidants of Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains – A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55 (7), 887–918. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.654142
- Gustinovich, V. G. (2020). Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii i razrabotka novogo assortimenta funktsional'nykh muchnykh konditerskikh izdeliy s ispol'zovaniem tonkodispersnykh rastitel'nykh poroshkov. Voronezh, 18.
- Nikolaev, N. A., Yaichkin, V. N., Gulyanov, Yu. A. (2013). Praktikum po tekhnologii pererabotki produktsii rastenievodstva» (po kursu «Tekhnologiya khraneniya, pererabotki i standartizatsii rastenievodstva»). Orenburg: Izdatel'skiy tsentr OGAU, 70.
- Gouldstein, Dzh., Yakovitsa, Kh. (Eds.) (1978). Prakticheskaya rastrovaya mikroskopiya. Moscow: Mir, 656.
- Razrabotka tekhnologii polucheniya gotovykh zernovykh osnov dlya produktov pitaniya. Otchet o NIR (promezhutoch.). No. GR 0118RK00544. Inv. No. 0218RK00489. Astana, 138.
- Pongrac, P., Arčon, I., Castillo-Michel, H., Vogel-Mikuš, K. (2020). Mineral Element Composition in Grain of Awned and Awnletted Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars: Tissue-Specific Iron Speciation and Phytate and Non-Phytate Ligand Ratio. Plants, 9 (1), 79. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010079
- Li, B., Yang, W., Nie, Y., Kang, F., Goff, H. D., Cui, S. W. (2019). Effect of steam explosion on dietary fiber, polysaccharide, protein and physicochemical properties of okara. Food Hydrocolloids, 94, 48–56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.02.042
- Saldanha do Carmo, C., Varela, P., Poudroux, C., Dessev, T., Myhrer, K., Rieder, A. et. al. (2019). The impact of extrusion parameters on physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial properties of expanded snacks from pea and oat fractions. LWT, 112, 108252. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108252
- Sayanjali, S., Ying, D., Sanguansri, L., Buckow, R., Augustin, M. A., Gras, S. L. (2017). The effect of extrusion on the functional properties of oat fibre. LWT, 84, 106–113. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.05.025
- Arribas, C., Cabellos, B., Sánchez, C., Cuadrado, C., Guillamón, E., Pedrosa, M. M. (2017). The impact of extrusion on the nutritional composition, dietary fiber and in vitro digestibility of gluten-free snacks based on rice, pea and carob flour blends. Food & Function, 8 (10), 3654–3663. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c7fo00910k
- Beck, S. M., Knoerzer, K., Foerster, M., Mayo, S., Philipp, C., Arcot, J. (2018). Low moisture extrusion of pea protein and pea fibre fortified rice starch blends. Journal of Food Engineering, 231, 61–71. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.03.004
- Jacques-Fajardo, G. E., Prado-Ramírez, R., Arriola-Guevara, E., Pérez Carrillo, E., Espinosa-Andrews, H., Guatemala Morales, G. M. (2017). Physical and hydration properties of expanded extrudates from a blue corn, yellow pea and oat bran blend. LWT, 84, 804–814. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.06.046
- Ramos Diaz, J. M., Sundarrajan, L., Kariluoto, S., Lampi, A.-M., Tenitz, S., Jouppila, K. (2016). Effect of Extrusion Cooking on Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Corn-Based Snacks Containing Amaranth and Quinoa: Application of Partial Least Squares Regression. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40 (1), e12320. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12320
- Kamau, E. H., Nkhata, S. G., Ayua, E. O. (2020). Extrusion and nixtamalization conditions influence the magnitude of change in the nutrients and bioactive components of cereals and legumes. Food Science & Nutrition, 8 (4), 1753–1765. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1473
- Thachil, M. T., Chouksey, M. K., Gudipati, V. (2013). Amylose-lipid complex formation during extrusion cooking: effect of added lipid type and amylose level on corn-based puffed snacks. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 49 (2), 309–316. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12333
- Nikmaram, N., Leong, S. Y., Koubaa, M., Zhu, Z., Barba, F. J., Greiner, R. et. al. (2017). Effect of extrusion on the anti-nutritional factors of food products: An overview. Food Control, 79, 62–73. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.03.027
- Koksel, F., Masatcioglu, M. T. (2018). Physical properties of puffed yellow pea snacks produced by nitrogen gas assisted extrusion cooking. LWT, 93, 592–598. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.04.011
- Korkerd, S., Wanlapa, S., Puttanlek, C., Uttapap, D., Rungsardthong, V. (2015). Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53 (1), 561–570. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2039-1
- Kristiawan, M., Micard, V., Maladira, P., Alchamieh, C., Maigret, J.-E., Réguerre, A.-L. et. al. (2018). Multi-scale structural changes of starch and proteins during pea flour extrusion. Food Research International, 108, 203–215. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.03.027
- Pathak, N., Kochhar, A. (2018). Extrusion Technology: Solution to Develop Quality Snacks for Malnourished Generation. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7 (1), 1293–1307. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.701.158
- Philipp, C., Oey, I., Silcock, P., Beck, S. M., Buckow, R. (2017). Impact of protein content on physical and microstructural properties of extruded rice starch-pea protein snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 212, 165–173. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.05.024
- Deepa, C., Umesh Hebbar, H. (2016). Effect of High-Temperature Short-Time ‘Micronization’ of Grains on Product Quality and Cooking Characteristics. Food Engineering Reviews, 8 (2), 201–213. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-015-9132-0
- Sarkar, D, Shetty, K. (2014). Metabolic Stimulation of Plant Phenolics for Food Preservation and Health. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 5 (1), 395–413. doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-030713-092418
- Majzoobi, M., Pashangeh, S., Farahnaky, A., Eskandari, M. H., Jamalian, J. (2012). Effect of particle size reduction, hydrothermal and fermentation treatments on phytic acid content and some physicochemical properties of wheat bran. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51 (10), 2755–2761. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0802-0
- Pelgrom, P. J. M., Wang, J., Boom, R. M., Schutyser, M. A. I. (2015). Pre- and post-treatment enhance the protein enrichment from milling and air classification of legumes. Journal of Food Engineering, 155, 53–61. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.01.005
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Zhanar Chakanova, Darigash Shaimerdenova, Meruert Bekbolatova, Gaini Sarbasova, Damira Iskakova, Adlet Yesmambetov
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The consolidation and conditions for the transfer of copyright (identification of authorship) is carried out in the License Agreement. In particular, the authors reserve the right to the authorship of their manuscript and transfer the first publication of this work to the journal under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY license. At the same time, they have the right to conclude on their own additional agreements concerning the non-exclusive distribution of the work in the form in which it was published by this journal, but provided that the link to the first publication of the article in this journal is preserved.
A license agreement is a document in which the author warrants that he/she owns all copyright for the work (manuscript, article, etc.).
The authors, signing the License Agreement with PC TECHNOLOGY CENTER, have all rights to the further use of their work, provided that they link to our edition in which the work was published.
According to the terms of the License Agreement, the Publisher PC TECHNOLOGY CENTER does not take away your copyrights and receives permission from the authors to use and dissemination of the publication through the world's scientific resources (own electronic resources, scientometric databases, repositories, libraries, etc.).
In the absence of a signed License Agreement or in the absence of this agreement of identifiers allowing to identify the identity of the author, the editors have no right to work with the manuscript.
It is important to remember that there is another type of agreement between authors and publishers – when copyright is transferred from the authors to the publisher. In this case, the authors lose ownership of their work and may not use it in any way.