Development of a method to harvest mechanical energy to use as an alternative to electrical energy in electric powered rides
Keywords:mechanical energy harvesting, alternative to electricity, energy conversion, flat spiral spring, kids' ride
Mechanical energy harvesting, storage and utilization methods and devices are a little explored area with a potential to replace electrical energy in machines operated with electricity and which is environmentally friendly. Energy harvesting from human actions is an optimistic solution to provide energy supply. There are various methods and techniques that discuss energy harvesting from human actions. The problem is that most of these methods deal with tiny energy output. The object of this study is to design and characterize a flat spiral spring based method to harvest enough mechanical energy, to store and to drive a ride as in an amusement park instead of electricity. A flat spiral spring is specifically designed and fabricated for this purpose. To begin with, a life-size prototype of the kids' ride using the flat spiral spring is modeled, analyzed, fabricated and implemented on the kids' ride prototype. The stability of the ride is analyzed by modeling the impact of the collision between two kids' rides. Energy is harvested by winding the spring by hands using a handle or by pulling back the kids’ ride and is stored in the spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method of harvesting, storing and utilization of mechanical energy can be an alternative to electrical energy in operating high-power machines like kids' rides. An optimum width of 30 mm and a thickness of 1.4 mm for the flat spiral spring are found to help in ease of manufacturability, ease of rotation by human and compactness. The average force required to wind the spring is calculated to be 16.06 N, which is approximately 33 % of the force that can be exerted by a human hand. The stability of the proposed system in case of collision is verified by calculating the roll angle, which is less than 3.83 degrees, which is well below the recommended roll angle limit in case of collision.
- Indian Amusement Park Industry. Insight Alpha. Available at: https://insightalpha.com/news_details.php?cid=81&sid=11&nid=402
- Wang, J. C., Wang, Y.-C., Ko, L., Wang, J. H. (2017). Greenhouse gas emissions of amusement parks in Taiwan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74, 581–589. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.02.070
- Fan, F. R., Tang, W., Wang, Z. L. (2016). Flexible Nanogenerators for Energy Harvesting and Self-Powered Electronics. Advanced Materials, 28 (22), 4283–4305. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201504299
- Guo, L., Lu, Q. (2017). Potentials of piezoelectric and thermoelectric technologies for harvesting energy from pavements. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 761–773. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.090
- Donelan, J. M., Li, Q., Naing, V., Hoffer, J. A., Weber, D. J., Kuo, A. D. (2008). Biomechanical Energy Harvesting: Generating Electricity During Walking with Minimal User Effort. Science, 319 (5864), 807–810. doi: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1149860
- Abdelkareem, M. A. A., Xu, L., Ali, M. K. A., Elagouz, A., Mi, J., Guo, S. et al. (2018). Vibration energy harvesting in automotive suspension system: A detailed review. Applied Energy, 229, 672–699. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.08.030
- Guo, H., He, X., Zhong, J., Zhong, Q., Leng, Q., Hu, C. et al. (2014). A nanogenerator for harvesting airflow energy and light energy. J. Mater. Chem. A, 2 (7), 2079–2087. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ta14421f
- Jiang, T., Zhang, L. M., Chen, X., Han, C. B., Tang, W., Zhang, C. et al. (2015). Structural Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy. ACS Nano, 9 (12), 12562–12572. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b06372
- de Araujo, M. V. V., Nicoletti, R. (2015). Electromagnetic harvester for lateral vibration in rotating machines. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 52-53, 685–699. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2014.07.025
- Ting, C.-C., Tsai, D.-Y., Hsiao, C.-C. (2012). Developing a mechanical roadway system for waste energy capture of vehicles and electric generation. Applied Energy, 92, 1–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.10.006
- Trinh, V. L., Chung, C. K. (2018). Harvesting mechanical energy, storage, and lighting using a novel PDMS based triboelectric generator with inclined wall arrays and micro-topping structure. Applied Energy, 213, 353–365. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.01.039
- Li, X., Chen, C., Li, Q., Xu, L., Liang, C., Ngo, K. et al. (2020). A compact mechanical power take-off for wave energy converters: Design, analysis, and test verification. Applied Energy, 278, 115459. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115459
- Halim, M. A., Rantz, R., Zhang, Q., Gu, L., Yang, K., Roundy, S. (2018). An electromagnetic rotational energy harvester using sprung eccentric rotor, driven by pseudo-walking motion. Applied Energy, 217, 66–74. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.093
- Xue, T., Yeo, H. G., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Roundy, S. (2018). Wearable inertial energy harvester with sputtered bimorph lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film beams. Smart Materials and Structures, 27 (8), 085026. doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-665x/aad037
- von Buren, T., Mitcheson, P. D., Green, T. C., Yeatman, E. M., Holmes, A. S., Troster, G. (2006). Optimization of inertial micropower Generators for human walking motion. IEEE Sensors Journal, 6 (1), 28–38. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/jsen.2005.853595
- Mi, J., Li, Q., Liu, M., Li, X., Zuo, L. (2020). Design, modelling, and testing of a vibration energy harvester using a novel half-wave mechanical rectification. Applied Energy, 279, 115726. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115726
- Wu, F., Li, C., Yin, Y., Cao, R., Li, H., Zhang, X. et al. (2018). A Flexible, Lightweight, and Wearable Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Energy Harvesting and Self-Powered Sensing. Advanced Materials Technologies, 4 (1), 1800216. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/admt.201800216
- Cao, S., Li, J. (2017). A survey on ambient energy sources and harvesting methods for structural health monitoring applications. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9 (4), 168781401769621. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1687814017696210
- Megalingam, R. K., Nair, L. M., Viswanath, M., Sugathan, S. (2012). Pedalite: Lighting up Lives in Un-electrified Villages. 2012 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ghtc.2012.61
- Megalingam, R. K., Gedela, V. V. (2017). Solar powered automated water pumping system for eco-friendly irrigation. 2017 International Conference on Inventive Computing and Informatics (ICICI). doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/icici.2017.8365208
- Prabhu, R. S., Vasudev, O. P. N., Nandu, V., Lokesh, K. J., Anudev, J. (2018). Design and Implementation of A Power Conversion System On A Bicycle With Utilisation By Sensors. 2018 2nd International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC)I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/i-smac.2018.8653679
- Bhargavi, P., Likhtih, S., Mohanty, A., Mahalakshmi, R. (2021). Design and Power Flow Control in TCSC Compensated SCIG based Wind Energy Conversion Systems. 2021 5th International Conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/iceca52323.2021.9675974
- Zou, H.-X., Zhao, L.-C., Gao, Q.-H., Zuo, L., Liu, F.-R., Tan, T. et al. (2019). Mechanical modulations for enhancing energy harvesting: Principles, methods and applications. Applied Energy, 255, 113871. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113871
- Evans, V. (2020). Newton’s Laws, G-forces and the impact on the brain. Australasian Journal of Neuroscience, 30 (1), 24–29. doi: https://doi.org/10.21307/ajon-2020-003
- Chen, J.-S., Chen, I.-S. (2015). Deformation and vibration of a spiral spring. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 64-65, 166–175. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2015.03.022
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Bharath Sasikumar, Dhananjay Raghavan, Shree Rajesh Raagul Vadivel, Sreekanth Makkal Mohandas, Sakthiprasad Kuttankulangara Manoharan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The consolidation and conditions for the transfer of copyright (identification of authorship) is carried out in the License Agreement. In particular, the authors reserve the right to the authorship of their manuscript and transfer the first publication of this work to the journal under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY license. At the same time, they have the right to conclude on their own additional agreements concerning the non-exclusive distribution of the work in the form in which it was published by this journal, but provided that the link to the first publication of the article in this journal is preserved.
A license agreement is a document in which the author warrants that he/she owns all copyright for the work (manuscript, article, etc.).
The authors, signing the License Agreement with PC TECHNOLOGY CENTER, have all rights to the further use of their work, provided that they link to our edition in which the work was published.
According to the terms of the License Agreement, the Publisher PC TECHNOLOGY CENTER does not take away your copyrights and receives permission from the authors to use and dissemination of the publication through the world's scientific resources (own electronic resources, scientometric databases, repositories, libraries, etc.).
In the absence of a signed License Agreement or in the absence of this agreement of identifiers allowing to identify the identity of the author, the editors have no right to work with the manuscript.
It is important to remember that there is another type of agreement between authors and publishers – when copyright is transferred from the authors to the publisher. In this case, the authors lose ownership of their work and may not use it in any way.