Effect of syzygium cumini leaf extract as a green corrosion inhibitor on API 5l carbon steel in 1M HCL





green corrosion inhibitor, Syzygium cumini leaf extract, physisorption, polyphenol and flavonoids based inhibitor molecules


Corrosion in API 5L steel under 1M HCl is a common issue; hence, creating a more effective and naturally-based inhibitor is critical. In this research, Syzygium Cumini leaf extract (SCLE) was used as a new green corrosion inhibitor under acidic conditions. The inhibition properties of the novel cumini extract were thoroughly characterized using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results show that the cumini inhibitor has excellent corrosion inhibition with 93 % inhibition efficiency. The adsorption behavior of the inhibitor follows the Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm due to the nearness of R2 to unity. The potentiodynamic and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the mixed type of corrosion inhibitor. Thermodynamic calculation of ΔGads is – 18.41 kJ mol-1 showing the physical adsorption process between the inhibitor and metals. Further inspection of ΔHads at ‒58.93 kJ mol-1 considers releasing energy during adsorption. The FTIR results agree with the increased growth of passive layers due to the adsorption of polyphenol and flavonoids on metals. Remarkably, the adsorption peak at 3266.59 cm-1 corresponds to the adsorption of –OH. The peak at 1612.56 and 1698.4 cm-1 is attributed to C=C and C=O functional groups. The above functional groups serve as adsorption centers to reduce the corrosion effect. The surface treatment of AFM indicated a good relationship with the functional group characterization and confirmed the significant corrosion rate reduction. This work can be used as a benchmark to develop a natural plant as a corrosion inhibitor.

Supporting Agency

  • The author gratefully thanks the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education Indonesia for International Indexed Publication Grants (PUTI) Q2 Financial Year of 2022-2023 Batch 3- Matching Fund (MF) Financial Year of 2022—2023, with contract number: NKB-1488/UN2.RST/HKP.05.00/2022.

Author Biographies

Rini Riastuti, Universitas Indonesia

Doctor of Engineering, Senior Lecturer

Prof Johny Wahyuadi Laboratory

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

Giannisa Mashanafie, Universitas Indonesia

Master of Engineering

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

Vika Rizkia, Politeknik Negeri Jakarta

Doctor of Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Ahmad Maksum, Politeknik Negeri Jakarta

Doctor of Engineering, Lecturer

Research Center for Eco-Friendly Technology

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Siska Prifiharni, Research Center for Metallurgy-National Research and Innovation Agency

Master of Metallurgical Engineering

Agus Kaban, Universitas Indonesia

Master of Engineering, Graduate Student

Prof Johny Wahyuadi Laboratory

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

Gadang Priyotomo, Research Center for Metallurgy-National Research and Innovation Agency

Doctor of Engineering

Johny Soedarsono, Universitas Indonesia

Doctor of Engineering, Professor

Prof Johny Wahyuadi Laboratory

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


  1. Neriyana, P. S., Alva, V. D. P. (2020). A Green Approach: Evaluation of Combretum indicum (CI) Leaf Extract as an Eco-friendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1M HCl. Chemistry Africa, 3 (4), 1087–1098. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42250-020-00190-z
  2. Salmasifar, A., Edraki, M., Alibakhshi, E., Ramezanzadeh, B., Bahlakeh, G. (2021). Combined electrochemical/surface investigations and computer modeling of the aquatic Artichoke extract molecules corrosion inhibition properties on the mild steel surface immersed in the acidic medium. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 327, 114856. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2020.114856
  3. Prifiharni, S., Mashanafie, G., Priyotomo, G., Royani, A., Ridhova, A., Elya, B., Soedarsono, J. W. (2022). Extract sarampa wood (Xylocarpus Moluccensis) as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in HCl 1M. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 99 (7), 100520. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jics.2022.100520
  4. Abba, B. N., Idouhli, R., Ilagouma, A. T., Abouelfida, A., Khadiri, M., Romane, A. (2021). Use of Endostemon tereticaulis (Pear.) M.Ashby and Hyptis spicigera Lam. Plant Extracts as Corrosion Green Inhibitors for Mild Steel in 1M HCl: Electrochemical and Surface Morphological Studies. Protection of Metals and Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 57 (3), 619–633. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/s2070205121030035
  5. Rajan, J. P., Shrivastava, R., Mishra, R. K. (2017). Corrosion Inhibition effect of Clerodendron Colebrookianum Walp Leaves (Phuinam) Extract on the Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel. Protection of Metals and Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 53 (6), 1161–1172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/s2070205118010264
  6. Sun, X., Qiang, Y., Hou, B., Zhu, H., Tian, H. (2022). Cabbage extract as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for X70 steel in hydrochloric acid medium. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 362, 119733. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2022.119733
  7. Fouda, A. S., El-Awady, G. Y., El Behairy, W. T. (2017). Prosopis juliflora Plant Extract as Potential Corrosion Inhibitor for Low-Carbon Steel in 1 M HCl Solution. Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 4 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40735-017-0124-x
  8. Perumal, S., Muthumanickam, S., Elangovan, A., Karthik, R., kannan, R. S., Mothilal, K. K. (2017). Bauhinia tomentosa Leaves Extract as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1M HCl Medium. Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 3 (2). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40735-017-0072-5
  9. Khadom, A. A., Abd, A. N., Ahmed, N. A., Kadhim, M. M., Fadhil, A. A. (2022). Combined influence of iodide ions and Xanthium Strumarium leaves extract as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for low-carbon steel in hydrochloric acid. Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 5, 100278. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crgsc.2022.100278
  10. Zakaria, F. A., Hamidon, T. S., Hussin, M. H. (2022). Applicability of winged bean extracts as organic corrosion inhibitors for reinforced steel in 0.5 M HCl electrolyte. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 99 (2), 100329. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jics.2021.100329
  11. Raghavendra, N. (2019). Latest Exploration on Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Industrial Important Metals in Hostile Fluid Environments: A Comprehensive Overview. Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 5 (3). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40735-019-0240-x
  12. Dehghani, A., Ghahremani, P., Mostafatabar, A. H., Ramezanzadeh, B. (2022). Plant extracts: Probable alternatives for traditional inhibitors for controlling alloys corrosion against acidic media – A review. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-02893-4
  13. Panchal, J., Shah, D., Patel, R., Shah, S., Prajapati, M., Shah, M. (2021). Comprehensive Review and Critical Data Analysis on Corrosion and Emphasizing on Green Eco-friendly Corrosion Inhibitors for Oil and Gas Industries. Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 7 (3). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40735-021-00540-5
  14. Chaubey, N., Savita, Qurashi, A., Chauhan, D. S., Quraishi, M. A. (2021). Frontiers and advances in green and sustainable inhibitors for corrosion applications: A critical review. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 321, 114385. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2020.114385
  15. Chauhan, D. S., Quraishi, M. A., Qurashi, A. (2021). Recent trends in environmentally sustainable Sweet corrosion inhibitors. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 326, 115117. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2020.115117
  16. Jmiai, A., El Ibrahimi, B., Tara, A., El Issami, S., Jbara, O., Bazzi, L. (2018). Alginate biopolymer as green corrosion inhibitor for copper in 1 M hydrochloric acid: Experimental and theoretical approaches. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1157, 408–417. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2017.12.060
  17. Kamali Ardakani, E., Kowsari, E., Ehsani, A. (2020). Imidazolium-derived polymeric ionic liquid as a green inhibitor for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl: Experimental and computational study. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 586, 124195. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2019.124195
  18. Abaka, A. K., Ishaku, G. A., Haruna, A., Ardo, B. P. (2020). Phytochemicals Screening and Antifungal Activity of Balanites aegyptiaca Seed and Callus Extract against Candida albicans. Asian Plant Research Journal, 4 (4), 9–16. doi: https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2020/v4i430091
  19. Fang, Y., Suganthan, B., Ramasamy, R. P. (2019). Electrochemical characterization of aromatic corrosion inhibitors from plant extracts. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 840, 74–83. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2019.03.052
  20. Fouda, A. S., Mohamed, O. A., Elabbasy, H. M. (2021). Ferula hermonis Plant Extract as Safe Corrosion Inhibitor for Zinc in Hydrochloric Acid Solution. Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 7 (4). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40735-021-00570-z
  21. Lohitkarn, J., Hemwech, P., Chantiwas, R., Jariyaboon, M. (2021). The Role of Cassava Leaf Extract as Green Inhibitor for Controlling Corrosion and Scale Problems in Cooling Water Systems. Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11668-021-01121-x
  22. Rustandi, A., Soedarsono, J. W., Suharno, B. (2011). The Use of Mixture of Piper Betle and Green Tea as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for API X-52 Steel in Aerated 3.5 % NaCl Solution at Various Rotation Rates. Advanced Materials Research, 383–390, 5418–5425. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.383-390.5418
  23. Huong Pham, T., Lee, W.-H., Kim, J.-G. (2022). Chrysanthemum coronarium leaves extract as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for aluminum anode in aluminum-air battery. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 347, 118269. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2021.118269
  24. Umoren, S. A., Solomon, M. M., Obot, I. B., Suleiman, R. K. (2021). Date palm leaves extract as a green and sustainable corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in 15 wt.% HCl solution: the role of extraction solvent on inhibition effect. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28 (30), 40879–40894. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13567-5
  25. Pramana, R. I., Kusumastuti, R., Soedarsono, J. W., Rustandi, A. (2013). Corrosion Inhibition of Low Carbon Steel by Pluchea Indica Less. in 3.5% NaCL Solution. Advanced Materials Research, 785–786, 20–24. doi: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.785-786.20
  26. Wang, Q., Wu, X., Zheng, H., Xiao, X., Liu, L., Zhang, Q. et al. (2022). Insight into anti-corrosion behavior of Centipeda minima leaves extract as high-efficiency and eco-friendly inhibitor. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 640, 128458. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2022.128458
  27. Okeniyi, J. O., Ogbiye, A. S., Ogunlana, O. O., Okeniyi, E. T., Ogunlana, O. E. (2015). Investigating Solanum Aethiopicum Leaf-Extract and Sodium-Dichromate Effects on Steel-Rebar Corrosion in Saline/Marine Simulating-Environment: Implications on Sustainable Alternative for Environmentally-Hazardous Inhibitor. Engineering Solutions for Sustainability, 167–175. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48138-8_16
  28. Kaban, A. P. S., Ridhova, A., Priyotomo, G., Elya, B., Maksum, A., Sadeli, Y. et al. (2021). Development of white tea extract as green corrosion inhibitor in mild steel under 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2 (6 (110)), 6–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.224435
  29. Popoola, L. T. (2019). Organic green corrosion inhibitors (OGCIs): a critical review. Corrosion Reviews, 37 (2), 71–102. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/corrrev-2018-0058
  30. Aslam, R., Mobin, M., Aslam, J., Lgaz, H., Chung, I.-M. (2019). Inhibitory effect of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and synergistic biodegradable gemini surfactants as effective inhibitors for MS corrosion in 1 M HCl. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 8 (5), 4521–4533. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.07.065
  31. Izadi, M., Shahrabi, T., Ramezanzadeh, B. (2017). Electrochemical investigations of the corrosion resistance of a hybrid sol–gel film containing green corrosion inhibitor-encapsulated nanocontainers. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 81, 356–372. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.10.039
  32. Farahati, R., Mousavi-Khoshdel, S. M., Ghaffarinejad, A., Behzadi, H. (2020). Experimental and computational study of penicillamine drug and cysteine as water-soluble green corrosion inhibitors of mild steel. Progress in Organic Coatings, 142, 105567. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2020.105567
  33. Paul Setiawan Kaban, A., Mayangsari, W., Syaiful Anwar, M., Maksum, A., Riastuti, R. et al. (2022). Experimental and modelling waste rice husk ash as a novel green corrosion inhibitor under acidic environment. Materials Today: Proceedings, 62, 4225–4234. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.04.738
  34. Hajipour, F., Asad, S., Amoozegar, M. A., Javidparvar, A. A., Tang, J., Zhong, H., Khajeh, K. (2021). Developing a Fluorescent Hybrid Nanobiosensor Based on Quantum Dots and Azoreductase Enzyme forMethyl Red Monitoring. Iranian Biomedical Journal, 25 (1), 8–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.29252/ibj.25.1.8
  35. Javidparvar, A. A., Naderi, R., Ramezanzadeh, B., Bahlakeh, G. (2019). Graphene oxide as a pH-sensitive carrier for targeted delivery of eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors in chloride solution: Experimental and theroretical investigations. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 72, 196–213. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2018.12.019
  36. Ravari, F. B., Dadgareenezhad, A. (2013). Synergistic influence of propargyl alcohol and zinc sulfate on inhibition of corrosion of aluminum in 0.5M H2So4. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 58 (3), 1853–1857. doi: https://doi.org/10.4067/s0717-97072013000300013
  37. Fragoza-Mar, L., Olivares-Xometl, O., Domínguez-Aguilar, M. A., Flores, E. A., Arellanes-Lozada, P., Jiménez-Cruz, F. (2012). Corrosion inhibitor activity of 1,3-diketone malonates for mild steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. Corrosion Science, 61, 171–184. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2012.04.031
  38. Hamani, H., Douadi, T., Al-Noaimi, M., Issaadi, S., Daoud, D., Chafaa, S. (2014). Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies of some azomethine compounds as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid. Corrosion Science, 88, 234–245. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2014.07.044
  39. Lai, C., Xie, B., Zou, L., Zheng, X., Ma, X., Zhu, S. (2017). Adsorption and corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by S-allyl-O,O′-dialkyldithiophosphates. Results in Physics, 7, 3434–3443. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2017.09.012
  40. Godwin-Nwakwasi, E. U., Elachi, E. E., Ezeokonkwo, M. A., Onwuchuruba, L. E. (2017). A Study of the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 0.5M Tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid by Alstonia boonei Leaves Extract as an Inhibitor at Different Temperatures. International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science, 3 (12), 1150–1157. doi: https://doi.org/10.22161/ijaems.3.12.9
  41. Hart, E. (Ed.) (2016). Corrosion inhibitors: Principles, mechanisms and applications. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
  42. Aourabi, S., Driouch, M., Sfaira, M., Mahjoubi, F., Hammouti, B., Verma, C. et al. (2021). Phenolic fraction of Ammi visnaga extract as environmentally friendly antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acidic medium. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 323, 114950. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2020.114950
  43. Xhanari, K., Finšgar, M., Knez Hrnčič, M., Maver, U., Knez, Ž., Seiti, B. (2017). Green corrosion inhibitors for aluminium and its alloys: a review. RSC Advances, 7 (44), 27299–27330. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c7ra03944a
  44. Li, X., Deng, S., Fu, H., Xie, X. (2014). Synergistic inhibition effects of bamboo leaf extract/major components and iodide ion on the corrosion of steel in H3PO4 solution. Corrosion Science, 78, 29–42. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2013.08.025
  45. Xu, Y. et al. (2018). Halogen-substituted pyrazolo-pyrimidine derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for copper in sulfuric acid solution. International Journal of Corrosion and Scale Inhibition, 7 (2). doi: https://doi.org/10.17675/2305-6894-2018-7-2-9
  46. Kim, S., Jang, Y., Sung, S., Kim, Y. (2007). Inhibitory Activity of Phenolic Glycosides from the Fruits of Idesia polycarpa on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in BV2 Microglia. Planta Medica, 73 (2), 167–169. doi: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-951771
  47. Shahzad, K., Sliem, M. H., Shakoor, R. A., Radwan, A. B., Kahraman, R., Umer, M. A. et al. (2020). Electrochemical and thermodynamic study on the corrosion performance of API X120 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. Scientific Reports, 10 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61139-3
  48. Tan, B., Zhang, S., Qiang, Y., Li, W., Li, H., Feng, L. et al. (2020). Experimental and theoretical studies on the inhibition properties of three diphenyl disulfide derivatives on copper corrosion in acid medium. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 298, 111975. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.111975
  49. Sedik, A., Lerari, D., Salci, A., Athmani, S., Bachari, K., Gecibesler, İ. H., Solmaz, R. (2020). Dardagan Fruit extract as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl: Electrochemical and surface morphological studies. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 107, 189–200. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2019.12.006
  50. Miralrio, A., Espinoza Vázquez, A. (2020). Plant Extracts as Green Corrosion Inhibitors for Different Metal Surfaces and Corrosive Media: A Review. Processes, 8 (8), 942. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8080942
  51. Ricky, E. X., Mpelwa, M., Xu, X. (2021). The study of m-pentadecylphenol on the inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 101, 359–371. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2021.05.047
  52. Al-Ghouti, M. A., Da’ana, D. A. (2020). Guidelines for the use and interpretation of adsorption isotherm models: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 393, 122383. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122383
  53. Vashishth, P., Bairagi, H., Narang, R., Shukla, S. K., Mangla, B. (2022). Thermodynamic and electrochemical investigation of inhibition efficiency of green corrosion inhibitor and its comparison with synthetic dyes on MS in acidic medium. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 365, 120042. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2022.120042
  54. Noorbakhsh Nezhad, A. H., Davoodi, A., Mohammadi Zahrani, E., Arefinia, R. (2020). The effects of an inorganic corrosion inhibitor on the electrochemical behavior of superhydrophobic micro-nano structured Ni films in 3.5% NaCl solution. Surface and Coatings Technology, 395, 125946. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.125946
  55. Chauhan, D. S., Quraishi, M. A., Srivastava, V., Haque, J., ibrahimi, B. E. (2021). Virgin and chemically functionalized amino acids as green corrosion inhibitors: Influence of molecular structure through experimental and in silico studies. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1226, 129259. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2020.129259
Effect of syzygium cumini leaf extract as a green corrosion inhibitor on API 5l carbon steel in 1M HCL




How to Cite

Riastuti, R., Mashanafie, G., Rizkia, V., Maksum, A., Prifiharni, S., Kaban, A., Priyotomo, G., & Soedarsono, J. (2022). Effect of syzygium cumini leaf extract as a green corrosion inhibitor on API 5l carbon steel in 1M HCL. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6(6 (120), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2022.267232



Technology organic and inorganic substances