Determination of heat transfer mechanisms during vacuum drying of solid-moist and liquid-viscous materials
Keywords:vacuum drying, heat transfer mechanism, heat transfer shares, Jerusalem artichoke tubers, camel milk, mare milk
Most drying methods combine convective, conductive and radiation heat transfer processes. The share of each type of heat transfer may vary depending on the type and mode of drying, type of product, etc. In this study, the problem of determining the heat transfer mechanism of vacuum drying of solid-moist and liquid-viscous materials is solved. The objects of the study are Jerusalem artichoke tubers, camel and mare milk. The numerical values of the heat transfer components are found experimentally and their shares in the total heat flux are determined. During vacuum drying of Jerusalem artichoke at a medium pressure of 4 kPa and a temperature of 55 °C (with a layer height of 0.01 and 0.02 m), the convective component predominates (58.55 and 67.65 %). The share of thermal conduction (18.96 and 29.39 %) and radiation (13.39 and 12.05 %) is much lower. The mechanism of thermal conduction begins to prevail with an increase in the height of the material layer (0.03 and 0.04 m). The convective component is also dominant for vacuum drying of milk: at medium pressures of 6÷10 kPa and a temperature of 40 °C, its value for mare milk reaches 78.21 %, for camel milk – 73.33 %. The second most important is the share of radiation (19.45 and 22.58 %). Conductive heat transfer has the minimum indicators (5.66 and 6.17 %). The large values of the share of thermal conduction during drying of Jerusalem artichoke compared to milk are explained by the fact that heat transfer occurs inside the tubers due to conduction, and inside milk – due to convection. Insignificant shares of radiation are explained by low and medium vacuum values in the chamber. In the studied range, heat and mass transfer occurs due to molecular diffusion and convection. The results obtained can be used to formulate criterion heat transfer equations, in engineering calculations, and optimization of the vacuum dryer operation.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Bakhytkul Abdizhapparova, Volodymyr Potapov, Nurlan Khanzharov, Azret Shingissov, Bayan Khanzharova
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