Creation of a methodology for determining the intensity of moisture evaporation within vacuum drying of fruits
Keywords:evaporation resistance coefficient, moisture evaporation, water activity, vacuum drying, ultrasound
The study objects were the Republic of Kazakhstan selection apple sorts: “Baiterek”, “Sarkyt” and “Saya”, also pear sorts: “Syilyk”, “Zhazdyk” and “Nagima”. Study of the process of moisture evaporation within vacuum drying of the fruits has essential value in the nutritional value saving. Basically, the product evaporative capacity is characterized by the evaporation resistance coefficient ‒ µ. Also during moisture removal, thermodynamic state of moisture changes that is described by water activity indicator ‒ aw. Experimental determination of these parameters allows for the analyzing moisture evaporation during vacuum drying process. Studies have established the following evaporation resistance coefficients: µ=2.03±0.07 for apple sorts and µ=2.3±0.05 for pear sorts. Either water activity decreases from 1.0 to 0.62±0.01 for apple sorts and from 1.0 to 0.65±0.04 for pear sorts. Two drying periods are discovered. The first drying period: 5.45–6.10 h for apple sorts; and 6.12–6.25 h. for pear sorts. The second drying period duration: 4.15–3.50 h for apple sorts; and 4.35–4.48 h for pear sorts. The critical humidity value: 27.1±2.1 % for apple sorts; and 30.1±2.5 % for pear sorts. Comparative analysis of calculated and experimental data shows maximum deviations 22.5 % for apple sorts and 23 % for pear sorts. The proposed equation for the calculating a moisture evaporation rate, considering the product properties and the hygroscopic parameters of air, can be used in practice to study the moisture evaporation dynamics from the product surface. The study results allow for the selecting an optimal mode for vacuum drying of apples and pears sorts in order to safe nutritional value and to produce biologically active additives for the food industry
- The authors gratefully acknowledge the “Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan” for the financial support of the research project “Development of technology for processing promising varieties of fruit, berry crops and grapes of domestic selection in order to obtain biologically active substances and fruit and berry powders for use in the food industry” within the framework of Programme Targeted Funding No. BR10764977.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Azret Shingisov, Ravshanbek Alibekov, Victoriia Evlash, Saparkul Yerkebayeva, Elvira Mailybayeva, Ukilim Tastemirova
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