DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.124129

Simulation of structure formation in the Fe–C–Cr–Ni–Si surfacing materials

Bohdan Efremenko, Alexander Belik, Yuliia Chabak, Hossam Halfa

Abstract


The paper investigates the formation of equilibrium phase state in the surfacing materials 300Cr25Ni3Si3 and 500Cr40Ni40Si2BZr, obtained by electric arc surfacing that employs powder tapes PL AN-101 and PL AN-111. This makes it possible to determine the relationship between chemical composition of the tape and the structure of the formed coating. To examine the patterns of phase transformations during crystallization, we applied thermodynamic simulation using the "Thermo-Calc Software". Phase diagrams of the system Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-C were constructed and analyzed; it was established that the alloys in equilibrium belong to the hypereutectic alloys. Their crystallization starts with the formation of primary carbides М7С3 with a hexagonal lattice and ends with the eutectic transformation "Liquid ® Austenite + М7С3". The alloy 500Cr40Ni40Si2BZr at a temperature below 1,081 °C undergoes carbide transformations М7С3«М3С2. In the alloy 300Cr25Ni3Si3, austenite partially transforms into ferrite in a temperature range below 830 °C. At 600 °C, the alloys consist of the following phases: the alloy 300Cr25Ni3Si3 ‒ austenite, ferrite, and carbide М7С3; the alloy 500Cr40Ni40Si2BZr ‒ austenite and carbides М7С3 and M3C2. It was established that the molar fraction of carbides in the alloy 500Cr40Ni40Si2BZr is considerably higher than that in the alloy 300Cr25Ni3Si3 (56 mol. % and 41 mol. %, respectively). We analyzed a change in the volumetric fraction and phase chemical composition of the alloys depending on temperature. The data obtained make it possible to predict the behavior of alloys under specific operating conditions.


Keywords


wear-resistant coating; thermodynamic simulation; equilibrium crystallization; chromium carbides; chromium eutectic; austenite

References


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Chigarev, V. V., Belik, A. G. (2012). Flux-cored strips for surfacing. Welding International, 26 (12), 975–979. doi: 10.1080/09507116.2012.694643

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Jia, X., Zuo, X., Liu, Y., Chen, N., Rong, Y. (2015). High Wear Resistance of White Cast Iron Treated by Novel Process: Principle and Mechanism. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 46 (12), 5514–5525. doi: 10.1007/s11661-015-3137-4

Bedolla-Jacuinde, A., Guerra, F. V., Mejía, I., Zuno-Silva, J., Rainforth, M. (2015). Abrasive wear of V–Nb–Ti alloyed high-chromium white irons. Wear, 332-333, 1006–1011. doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2015.01.049

Efremenko, V. G., Shimizu, K., Cheiliakh, A. P., Pastukhova, T. V., Chabak, Y. G., Kusumoto, K. (2016). Abrasive resistance of metastable V–Cr–Mn–Ni spheroidal carbide cast irons using the factorial design method. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, 23 (6), 645–657. doi: 10.1007/s12613-016-1277-1

Youping M., Xiulan L., Yugao L., Shuyi Z., Xiaoming D. (2012). Effect of Ti-V-Nb-Mo Addition on Microstructure of High Chromium Cast Iron. China Foundry, 9 (2), 148–153.

Efremenko, V. G., Chabak, Y. G., Lekatou, A., Karantzalis, A. E., Shimizu, K., Fedun, V. I. et. al. (2016). Pulsed plasma deposition of Fe-C-Cr-W coating on high-Cr-cast iron: Effect of layered morphology and heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness. Surface and Coatings Technology, 304, 293–305. doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.07.016

Efremenko, V. G., Shimizu, K., Pastukhova, T. V., Chabak, Y. G., Kusumoto, K., Efremenko, A. V. (2017). Effect of bulk heat treatment and plasma surface hardening on the microstructure and erosion wear resistance of complex-alloyed cast irons with spheroidal vanadium carbides. Journal of Friction and Wear, 38 (1), 58–64. doi: 10.3103/s1068366617010056

Tang, X. H., Chung, R., Pang, C. J., Li, D. Y., Hinckley, B., Dolman, K. (2011). Microstructure of high (45wt.%) chromium cast irons and their resistances to wear and corrosion. Wear, 271 (9-10), 1426–1431. doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2010.11.047

Imurai, S., Thanachayanont, C., Pearce, J. T. H., Chairuangsri, T. (2015). Microstructure And Erosion-Corrosion Behaviour Of As-Cast High Chromium White Irons Containing Molybdenum In Aqueous Sulfuric-Acid Slurry. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 60 (2), 919–923. doi: 10.1515/amm-2015-0230

Efremenko, V. G., Chabak, Y. G., Lekatou, A., Karantzalis, A. E., Efremenko, A. V. (2016). High-Temperature Oxidation and Decarburization of 14.55 wt pct Cr-Cast Iron in Dry Air Atmosphere. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 47 (4), 1529–1543. doi: 10.1007/s11661-016-3336-7

Malinov, V. L., Chigarev, V. V., Vorob'ev, V. V. (2012). Novye poroshkovye lenty dlya naplavki detaley, rabotayushchih v usloviyah abrazivnogo i gazoabrazivnogo vozdeystviya. Zakhyst metalurhiynykh mashyn vid polomok, 14, 252–258.

Lin, C.-M., Chang, C.-M., Chen, J.-H., Hsieh, C.-C., Wu, W. (2010). Microstructure and wear characteristics of high-carbon Cr-based alloy claddings formed by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Surface and Coatings Technology, 205 (7), 2590–2596. doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.10.004

Yüksel, N., Şahin, S. (2014). Wear behavior–hardness–microstructure relation of Fe–Cr–C and Fe–Cr–C–B based hardfacing alloys. Materials & Design, 58, 491–498. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2014.02.032

Ilinykh, N., Krivorogova, A. (2017). Thermodynamic modeling of fluxing alloys of Ni-C-Cr-Si-B system. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 226 (5), 1115–1121. doi: 10.1140/epjst/e2016-60240-0

Yang, Y., Fu, H., Lei, Y., Wang, K., Zhu, L., Jiang, L. (2015). Phase Diagram Calculation and Analyze on Cast High-Boron High-Speed Steel. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 25 (2), 409–420. doi: 10.1007/s11665-015-1847-9

Samsonov, G. V. (Ed.) (1970). Tugoplavkie karbidy. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 276.

Ostash, O. P., Kulyk, V. V., Poznyakov, V. D., Haivorons’kyi, O. A., Markashova, L. I., Vira, V. V. et. al. (2017). Fatigue crack growth resistance of welded joints simulating the weld-repaired railway wheels metal. Archives of Materials Science and Engineering, 2 (86), 49–52. doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0010.4885

Tang, X. H., Li, L., Hinckley, B., Dolman, K., Parent, L., Li, D. Y. (2015). Beneficial Effects of the Core–Shell Structure of Primary Carbides in High-Cr (45 wt%) White Cast Irons on Their Mechanical Behavior and Wear Resistance. Tribology Letters, 58 (3). doi: 10.1007/s11249-015-0522-5


GOST Style Citations


Voronchuk A. P. Poroshkovye lenty dlya iznosostoykoy naplavki // Avtomaticheskaya svarka. 2014. Issue 6-7. P. 75–78.

Chigarev V. V., Belik A. G. Flux-cored strips for surfacing // Welding International. 2012. Vol. 26, Issue 12. P. 975–979. doi: 10.1080/09507116.2012.694643 

Zhudra A. P., Voronchuk A. P. Naplavochnye poroshkovye lenty // Avtomaticheskaya svarka. 2012. Issue 1. P. 39–44.

High Wear Resistance of White Cast Iron Treated by Novel Process: Principle and Mechanism / Jia X., Zuo X., Liu Y., Chen N., Rong Y. // Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 2015. Vol. 46, Issue 12. P. 5514–5525. doi: 10.1007/s11661-015-3137-4 

Abrasive wear of V–Nb–Ti alloyed high-chromium white irons / Bedolla-Jacuinde A., Guerra F. V., Mejía I., Zuno-Silva J., Rainforth M. // Wear. 2015. Vol. 332–333. P. 1006–1011. doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2015.01.049 

Abrasive resistance of metastable V–Cr–Mn–Ni spheroidal carbide cast irons using the factorial design method / Efremenko V. G., Shimizu K., Cheiliakh A. P., Pastukhova T. V., Chabak Y. G., Kusumoto K. // International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials. 2016. Vol. 23, Issue 6. P. 645–657. doi: 10.1007/s12613-016-1277-1 

Effect of Ti-V-Nb-Mo Addition on Microstructure of High Chromium Cast Iron / Youping M., Xiulan L., Yugao L., Shuyi Z., Xiaoming D. // China Foundry. 2012. Vol. 9, Issue 2. P. 148–153.

Pulsed plasma deposition of Fe-C-Cr-W coating on high-Cr-cast iron: Effect of layered morphology and heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness / Efremenko V. G., Chabak Y. G., Lekatou A., Karantzalis A. E., Shimizu K., Fedun V. I. et. al. // Surface and Coatings Technology. 2016. Vol. 304. P. 293–305. doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.07.016 

Effect of bulk heat treatment and plasma surface hardening on the microstructure and erosion wear resistance of complex-alloyed cast irons with spheroidal vanadium carbides / Efremenko V. G., Shimizu K., Pastukhova T. V., Chabak Y. G., Kusumoto K., Efremenko A. V. // Journal of Friction and Wear. 2017. Vol. 38, Issue 1. P. 58–64. doi: 10.3103/s1068366617010056 

Microstructure of high (45wt.%) chromium cast irons and their resistances to wear and corrosion / Tang X. H., Chung R., Pang C. J., Li D. Y., Hinckley B., Dolman K. // Wear. 2011. Vol. 271, Issue 9-10. P. 1426–1431. doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2010.11.047 

Microstructure And Erosion-Corrosion Behaviour Of As-Cast High Chromium White Irons Containing Molybdenum In Aqueous Sulfuric-Acid Slurry / Imurai S., Thanachayanont C., Pearce J. T. H., Chairuangsri T. // Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 2015. Vol. 60, Issue 2. P. 919–923. doi: 10.1515/amm-2015-0230 

High-Temperature Oxidation and Decarburization of 14.55 wt pct Cr-Cast Iron in Dry Air Atmosphere / Efremenko V. G., Chabak Y. G., Lekatou A., Karantzalis A. E., Efremenko A. V. // Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 2016. Vol. 47, Issue 4. P. 1529–1543. doi: 10.1007/s11661-016-3336-7 

Malinov V. L., Chigarev V. V., Vorob'ev V. V. Novye poroshkovye lenty dlya naplavki detaley, rabotayushchih v usloviyah abrazivnogo i gazoabrazivnogo vozdeystviya // Zakhyst metalurhiynykh mashyn vid polomok. 2012. Issue 14. P. 252–258.

Microstructure and wear characteristics of high-carbon Cr-based alloy claddings formed by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) / Lin C.-M., Chang C.-M., Chen J.-H., Hsieh C.-C., Wu W. // Surface and Coatings Technology. 2010. Vol. 205, Issue 7. P. 2590–2596. doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.10.004 

Yüksel N., Şahin S. Wear behavior–hardness–microstructure relation of Fe–Cr–C and Fe–Cr–C–B based hardfacing alloys // Materials & Design. 2014. Vol. 58. P. 491–498. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2014.02.032 

Ilinykh N., Krivorogova A. Thermodynamic modeling of fluxing alloys of Ni-C-Cr-Si-B system // The European Physical Journal Special Topics. 2017. Vol. 226, Issue 5. P. 1115–1121. doi: 10.1140/epjst/e2016-60240-0 

Phase Diagram Calculation and Analyze on Cast High-Boron High-Speed Steel / Yang Y., Fu H., Lei Y., Wang K., Zhu L., Jiang L. // Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 2015. Vol. 25, Issue 2. P. 409–420. doi: 10.1007/s11665-015-1847-9 

Tugoplavkie karbidy / G. V. Samsonov (Ed.). Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1970. 276 p.

Fatigue crack growth resistance of welded joints simulating the weld-repaired railway wheels metal / Ostash O. P., Kulyk V. V., Poznyakov V. D., Haivorons’kyi O. A., Markashova L. I., Vira V. V. et. al. // Archives of Materials Science and Engineering. 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 86. P. 49–52. doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0010.4885 

Beneficial Effects of the Core–Shell Structure of Primary Carbides in High-Cr (45 wt%) White Cast Irons on Their Mechanical Behavior and Wear Resistance / Tang X. H., Li L., Hinckley B., Dolman K., Parent L., Li D. Y. // Tribology Letters. 2015. Vol. 58, Issue 3. doi: 10.1007/s11249-015-0522-5 







Copyright (c) 2018 Bohdan Efremenko, Alexander Belik, Yuliia Chabak, Hossam Halfa

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061