DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.127006

The analysis of friction effect on equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) process on Aluminium 5052 to homogeneity of strain distribution

Aminnudin Aminnudin, Pratikto Pratikto, Anindito Purnowidodo, Yudy Surya Irawan

Abstract


In the current study, the effect of friction coefficient on strain distribution and deformation was investigated with the computer simulation providing a better understanding of the material flow mechanism and deformation behavior in the ECAP. The 10×10 mm and 50 mm-long rectangular billet was used as the geometry of aluminum material. The geometry of dies is 105° channel angle, 0 mm inner fillet radius, and 5 mm outer fillet radius. The dies were modeled as rigid bodies, and the specimen was assumed as a bilinear hardening model. The effect of friction was investigated with the three-level variation coefficient of friction (0.01; 0.025 and 0.05). Based on the result, it can be shown that the friction affects the strain distribution condition. The friction of 0.05 produced more uniform strain distribution, better homogeneity, and smaller corner gap. The experimental study of modeling results was done with MoS2 lubricant while the strain distribution was verified by the microhardness test. The microhardness distribution test result was similar to strain distribution from modeling.


Keywords


die; aluminum; ECAP; friction; homogeneity; simulation; strain

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References


Valiev, R. Z., Langdon, T. G. (2006). Developments in the use of ECAP processing for grain refinement. Reviews of Advanced Materials Science, 13 (1), 15–26.

Valiev, R. Z., Langdon, T. G. (2006). Principles of equal-channel angular pressing as a processing tool for grain refinement. Progress in Materials Science, 51 (7), 881–981. doi: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2006.02.003

Luis Pérez, C. J., Luri, R. (2008). Study of the ECAE process by the upper bound method considering the correct die design. Mechanics of Materials, 40 (8), 617–628. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2008.02.003

Valiev, R. (2004). Nanostructuring of metals by severe plastic deformation for advanced properties. Nature Materials, 3 (8), 511–516. doi: 10.1038/nmat1180

Balasundar, I., Raghu, T. (2010). Effect of friction model in numerical analysis of equal channel angular pressing process. Materials & Design, 31 (1), 449–457. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2009.05.029

Aminnudin, Pratiko, Purnowidodo A., Irawan Y. S., Haruyama S., Kaminishi K. (2013). Evaluation Grain Homogeneity of Aluminium after ECAP Process by ECAP Geometry Analysis Using Taguchi Method. Key Engineering Materials, 594-595, 896–901. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.594-595.896

Furukawa, M., Iwahashi, Y., Horita, Z., Nemoto, M., Tsenev, N. K., Valiev, R. Z., Langdon, T. G. (1997). Structural evolution and the Hall-Petch relationship in an Al-Mg-Li-Zr alloy with ultra-fine grain size. Acta Materialia, 45 (11), 4751–4757. doi: 10.1016/s1359-6454(97)00120-1

Chrominski, W., Olejnik, L., Rosochowski, A., Lewandowska, M. (2015). Grain refinement in technically pure aluminium plates using incremental ECAP processing. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 636, 172–180. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.03.098

Iwahashi, Y., Wang, J., Horita, Z., Nemoto, M., Langdon, T. G. (1996). Principle of equal-channel angular pressing for the processing of ultra-fine grained materials. Scripta Materialia, 35 (2), 143–146. doi: 10.1016/1359-6462(96)00107-8

Patil Basavaraj, V., Chakkingal, U., Prasanna Kumar, T. S. (2009). Study of channel angle influence on material flow and strain inhomogeneity in equal channel angular pressing using 3D finite element simulation. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209 (1), 89–95. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.01.031

Kubota, M., Wu, X., Xu, W., Xia, K. (2010). Mechanical properties of bulk aluminium consolidated from mechanically milled particles by back pressure equal channel angular pressing. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527 (24-25), 6533–6536. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2010.06.088

Cabibbo, M. (2010). A TEM Kikuchi pattern study of ECAP AA1200 via routes A, C, BC. Materials Characterization, 61 (6), 613–625. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2010.03.007

Luri, R., Luis Pérez, C. J., Salcedo, D., Puertas, I., León, J., Pérez, I., Fuertes, J. P. (2011). Evolution of damage in AA-5083 processed by equal channel angular extrusion using different die geometries. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 211 (1), 48–56. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.08.032

Djavanroodi, F., Ebrahimi, M. (2010). Effect of die channel angle, friction and back pressure in the equal channel angular pressing using 3D finite element simulation. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527 4-5), 1230–1235. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2009.09.052

Mahallawy, N. E., Shehata, F. A., Hameed, M. A. E., Aal, M. I. A. E., Kim, H. S. (2010). 3D FEM simulations for the homogeneity of plastic deformation in Al–Cu alloys during ECAP. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527 (6), 1404–1410. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2009.10.032

Suo, T., Li, Y., Guo, Y., Liu, Y. (2006). The simulation of deformation distribution during ECAP using 3D finite element method. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 432 (1-2), 269–274. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2006.06.035

Iwahashi, Y., Wang, J., Horita, Z., Nemoto, M., Langdon, T. G. (1996). Principle of equal-channel angular pressing for the processing of ultra-fine grained materials. Scripta Materialia, 35 (2), 143–146. doi: 10.1016/1359-6462(96)00107-8

Hatch, J. E. (Ed.) (1984). Aluminium: Properties and Physical Metallurgy. Ohio: American Society for Metals, 424.


GOST Style Citations


Valiev R. Z., Langdon T. G. Developments in the use of ECAP processing for grain refinement // Reviews of Advanced Materials Science. 2006. Vol. 13, Issue 1. P. 15–26.

Valiev R. Z., Langdon T. G. Principles of equal-channel angular pressing as a processing tool for grain refinement // Progress in Materials Science. 2006. Vol. 51, Issue 7. P. 881–981. doi: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2006.02.003 

Luis Pérez C. J., Luri R. Study of the ECAE process by the upper bound method considering the correct die design // Mechanics of Materials. 2008. Vol. 40, Issue 8. P. 617–628. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2008.02.003 

Valiev R. Nanostructuring of metals by severe plastic deformation for advanced properties // Nature Materials. 2004. Vol. 3, Issue 8. P. 511–516. doi: 10.1038/nmat1180 

Balasundar I., Raghu T. Effect of friction model in numerical analysis of equal channel angular pressing process // Materials & Design. 2010. Vol. 31, Issue 1. P. 449–457. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2009.05.029 

Evaluation Grain Homogeneity of Aluminium after ECAP Process by ECAP Geometry Analysis Using Taguchi Method / Aminnudin, Pratiko, Purnowidodo A., Irawan Y. S., Haruyama S., Kaminishi K. // Key Engineering Materials. 2013. Vol. 594-595. P. 896–901. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.594-595.896 

Structural evolution and the Hall-Petch relationship in an Al-Mg-Li-Zr alloy with ultra-fine grain size / Furukawa M., Iwahashi Y., Horita Z., Nemoto M., Tsenev N. K., Valiev R. Z., Langdon T. G. // Acta Materialia. 1997. Vol. 45, Issue 11. P. 4751–4757. doi: 10.1016/s1359-6454(97)00120-1 

Grain refinement in technically pure aluminium plates using incremental ECAP processing / Chrominski W., Olejnik L., Rosochowski A., Lewandowska M. // Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2015. Vol. 636. P. 172–180. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.03.098 

Principle of equal-channel angular pressing for the processing of ultra-fine grained materials / Iwahashi Y., Wang J., Horita Z., Nemoto M., Langdon T. G. // Scripta Materialia. 1996. Vol. 35, Issue 2. P. 143–146. doi: 10.1016/1359-6462(96)00107-8 

Patil Basavaraj V., Chakkingal U., Prasanna Kumar T. S. Study of channel angle influence on material flow and strain inhomogeneity in equal channel angular pressing using 3D finite element simulation // Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2009. Vol. 209, Issue 1. P. 89–95. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.01.031 

Mechanical properties of bulk aluminium consolidated from mechanically milled particles by back pressure equal channel angular pressing / Kubota M., Wu X., Xu W., Xia K. // Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2010. Vol. 527, Issue 24-25. P. 6533–6536. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2010.06.088 

Cabibbo M. A TEM Kikuchi pattern study of ECAP AA1200 via routes A, C, BC // Materials Characterization. 2010. Vol. 61, Issue 6. P. 613–625. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2010.03.007 

Evolution of damage in AA-5083 processed by equal channel angular extrusion using different die geometries / Luri R., Luis Pérez C. J., Salcedo D., Puertas I., León J., Pérez I., Fuertess J. P. // Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2011. Vol. 211, Issue 1. P. 48–56. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.08.032 

Djavanroodi F., Ebrahimi M. Effect of die channel angle, friction and back pressure in the equal channel angular pressing using 3D finite element simulation // Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2010. Vol. 527, Issue 4-5. P. 1230–1235. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2009.09.052 

3D FEM simulations for the homogeneity of plastic deformation in Al–Cu alloys during ECAP / Mahallawy N. E., Shehata F. A., Hameed M. A. E., Aal M. I. A. E., Kim H. S. // Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2010. Vol. 527, Issue 6. P. 1404–1410. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2009.10.032 

The simulation of deformation distribution during ECAP using 3D finite element method / Suo T., Li Y., Guo Y., Liu Y. // Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2006. Vol. 432, Issue 1-2. P. 269–274. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2006.06.035 

Principle of equal-channel angular pressing for the processing of ultra-fine grained materials / Iwahashi Y., Wang J., Horita Z., Nemoto M., Langdon T. G. // Scripta Materialia. 1996. Vol. 35, Issue 2. P. 143–146. doi: 10.1016/1359-6462(96)00107-8 

Aluminium: Properties and Physical Metallurgy / J. E. Hatch (Ed.). Ohio: American Society for Metals, 1984. 424 p.






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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061