DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.140899

Synthesis of Ni(OH)2 by template homogeneous precipitation for application in the binder­free electrode of supercapacitor

Vadym Kovalenko, Valerii Kotok

Abstract


Nickel hydroxide is widely used as the active material for hybrid supercapacitors. The most electrochemically active is α-Ni(OH)2, synthesized using template homogeneous precipitation. The disadvantage of template homogeneous synthesis is the inclusion of the template into the composition of nickel hydroxide and the necessity of its removal. In order to reverse this disadvantage, it was proposed to study the possibility of using the remaining template as an inner binder for the preparation of a highly effective pasted supercapacitor electrode, without an external binder. Samples of Ni(OH)2 were prepared by means of template homogeneous precipitation, with polyvinyl alcohol and cellulose ester Culminal C8465 with the concentration of 0.05 % and 0.5 %. Structural properties of the samples were studied by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, particle size and morphology — by means of scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical properties of nickel hydroxide were evaluated by means of galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling of the pasted electrode prepared without a binder, in the supercapacitor regime. It was discovered, that the use of PVA results in significantly higher crystallinity and lower agglomerate formation. Increasing PVA concentration by 10 times had no effect on these characteristics. For Culminal C8465, the crystallinity is significantly lower, but it increases with template concentration. Higher concentration of Culminal C8465 also leads to significant particle aggregation. Different behavior of PVA and Culminal C8465 has been revealed. PVA behaves like a weak binder and Culminal C8465 shows strong binding properties. Complex analysis of electrochemical characteristics of pasted electrodes prepared without a binder confirmed the possibility of using the remaining template as an inner binder. The highest specific capacity for the electrode without an external binder was 197 F/g when Culminal C8465 was used as a template. It is recommended to conduct the selection of a water-soluble compound that would play the role of a template during the synthesis of nickel hydroxide and would also serve as a binder for the preparation of pasted electrode

Keywords


nickel hydroxide; template synthesis; homogeneous precipitation; supercapacitor; binder

References


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Lang, J.-W., Kong, L.-B., Liu, M., Luo, Y.-C., Kang, L. (2009). Asymmetric supercapacitors based on stabilized α-Ni(OH)2 and activated carbon. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 14 (8), 1533–1539. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-009-0984-1

Lang, J.-W., Kong, L.-B., Wu, W.-J., Liu, M., Luo, Y.-C., Kang, L. (2008). A facile approach to the preparation of loose-packed Ni(OH)2 nanoflake materials for electrochemical capacitors. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 13 (2), 333–340. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-008-0560-0

Aghazadeh, M., Ghaemi, M., Sabour, B., Dalvand, S. (2014). Electrochemical preparation of α-Ni(OH)2 ultrafine nanoparticles for high-performance supercapacitors. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 18 (6), 1569–1584. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-014-2381-7

Zheng, C., Liu, X., Chen, Z., Wu, Z., Fang, D. (2014). Excellent supercapacitive performance of a reduced graphene oxide/Ni(OH)2 composite synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. Journal of Central South University, 21 (7), 2596–2603. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11771-014-2218-7

Wang, B., Williams, G. R., Chang, Z., Jiang, M., Liu, J., Lei, X., Sun, X. (2014). Hierarchical NiAl Layered Double Hydroxide/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Foam Electrodes with Excellent Pseudocapacitive Properties. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6 (18), 16304–16311. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/am504530e

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Kovalenko, V., Kotok, V. (2018). Comparative investigation of electrochemically synthesized (α+β) layered nickel hydroxide with mixture of α-Ni(OH)2 and β-Ni(OH)2. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2 (6 (92)), 16–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.125886

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Tang, H. W., Wang, J. L., Chang, Z. R. (2008). Preparation and characterization of nanoscale nickel hydroxide using hydrothermal synthesis method. J. Func. Mater, 39 (3), 469–476.

Tang, Y., Liu, Y., Yu, S., Zhao, Y., Mu, S., Gao, F. (2014). Hydrothermal synthesis of a flower-like nano-nickel hydroxide for high performance supercapacitors. Electrochimica Acta, 123, 158–166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2013.12.187

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Cui, H. L., Zhang, M. L. (2009). Synthesis of flower-like nickel hydroxide by ionic liquids-assisted. J. Yanan. Univ., 28 (2), 76–83.

Xu, L., Ding, Y.-S., Chen, C.-H., Zhao, L., Rimkus, C., Joesten, R., Suib, S. L. (2008). 3D Flowerlike α-Nickel Hydroxide with Enhanced Electrochemical Activity Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method. Chemistry of Materials, 20 (1), 308–316. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/cm702207w

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Kotok, V., Kovalenko, V. (2017). Optimization of nickel hydroxide electrode of the hybrid supercapacitor. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (6 (85)), 4–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90810

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Kovalenko, V., Kotok, V. (2017). Study of the influence of the template concentration under homogeneous precepitation on the properties of Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitors. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 4 (6 (88)), 17–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.106813

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Miyake, K., Hirota, Y., Uchida, Y., Nishiyama, N. (2016). Synthesis of mesoporous MFI zeolite using PVA as a secondary template. Journal of Porous Materials, 23 (5), 1395–1399. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-016-0199-7

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GOST Style Citations


Simon P., Gogotsi Y. Materials for electrochemical capacitors // Nature Materials. 2008. Vol. 7, Issue 11. P. 845–854. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat2297 

Burke A. R&D considerations for the performance and application of electrochemical capacitors // Electrochimica Acta. 2007. Vol. 53, Issue 3. P. 1083–1091. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2007.01.011 

Asymmetric supercapacitors based on stabilized α-Ni(OH)2 and activated carbon / Lang J.-W., Kong L.-B., Liu M., Luo Y.-C., Kang L. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2009. Vol. 14, Issue 8. P. 1533–1539. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-009-0984-1 

A facile approach to the preparation of loose-packed Ni(OH)2 nanoflake materials for electrochemical capacitors / Lang J.-W., Kong L.-B., Wu W.-J., Liu M., Luo Y.-C., Kang L. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2008. Vol. 13, Issue 2. P. 333–340. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-008-0560-0 

Electrochemical preparation of α-Ni(OH)2 ultrafine nanoparticles for high-performance supercapacitors / Aghazadeh M., Ghaemi M., Sabour B., Dalvand S. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2014. Vol. 18, Issue 6. P. 1569–1584. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-014-2381-7 

Excellent supercapacitive performance of a reduced graphene oxide/Ni(OH)2 composite synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route / Zheng C., Liu X., Chen Z., Wu Z., Fang D. // Journal of Central South University. 2014. Vol. 21, Issue 7. P. 2596–2603. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11771-014-2218-7 

Hierarchical NiAl Layered Double Hydroxide/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Foam Electrodes with Excellent Pseudocapacitive Properties / Wang B., Williams G. R., Chang Z., Jiang M., Liu J., Lei X., Sun X. // ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2014. Vol. 6, Issue 18. P. 16304–16311. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/am504530e 

Nickel hydroxides and related materials: a review of their structures, synthesis and properties / Hall D. S., Lockwood D. J., Bock C., MacDougall B. R. // Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 2014. Vol. 471, Issue 2174. P. 20140792–20140792. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2014.0792 

Influence of temperature on the characteristics of Ni(II), Ti(IV) layered double hydroxides synthesised by different methods / Solovov V., Kovalenko V., Nikolenko N., Kotok V., Vlasova E. // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 1, Issue 6 (85). P. 16–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90873 

Synthesis and electrochemical performance of amorphous nickel hydroxide codoped with Fe3+ and CO 3 / Liu C., Huang L., Li Y., Sun D. // Ionics. 2010. Vol. 16, Issue 3. P. 215–219. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-009-0383-8 

A facile approach to synthesis coral-like nanoporous β-Ni(OH) 2 and its supercapacitor application / Li J., Luo F., Tian X., Lei Y., Yuan H., Xiao D. // Journal of Power Sources. 2013. Vol. 243. P. 721–727. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.05.172 

Nickel hydroxide obtained by high-temperature two-step synthesis as an effective material for supercapacitor applications / Kovalenko V. L., Kotok V. A., Sykchin A. A., Mudryi I. A., Ananchenko B. A., Burkov A. A. et. al. // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2017. Vol. 21, Issue 3. P. 683–691. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-016-3405-2 

Xiao-yan G., Jian-cheng D. Preparation and electrochemical performance of nano-scale nickel hydroxide with different shapes // Materials Letters. 2007. Vol. 61, Issue 3. P. 621–625. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2006.05.026 

Supercapacitive behavior of β-Ni(OH) 2 nanospheres prepared by a facile electrochemical method / Tizfahm J., Safibonab B., Aghazadeh M., Majdabadi, A., Sabour B., Dalvand S. // Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2014. Vol. 443. P. 544–551. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.12.024 

Aghazadeh M., Golikand A. N., Ghaemi M. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of ultrafine β-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles // International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2011. Vol. 36, Issue 14. P. 8674–8679. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.03.144 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Obtaining of Ni-Al layered double hydroxide by slit diaphragm electrolyzer // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 6 (86). P. 11–17. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.95699 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Comparative investigation of electrochemically synthesized (α+β) layered nickel hydroxide with mixture of α-Ni(OH)2 and β-Ni(OH)2 // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 2, Issue 6 (92). P. 16–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.125886 

Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy of α and β Phases of Thin Nickel Hydroxide Films Electrochemically Formed on Nickel / Hall D. S., Lockwood D. J., Poirier S., Bock C., MacDougall B. R. // The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 2012. Vol. 116, Issue 25. P. 6771–6784. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jp303546r 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V., Bolotin O. Definition of factors influencing on Ni(OH)2 electrochemical characteristics for supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2016. Vol. 5, Issue 6 (83). P. 17–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2016.79406 

Hu M., Lei L. Effects of particle size on the electrochemical performances of a layered double hydroxide, [Ni4Al(OH)10]NO3 // Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 2006. Vol. 11, Issue 6. P. 847–852. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-006-0231-y 

Vasserman I. N. Khimicheskoe osazdenie is rastvorov [Chemical precipitation from solutions]. Leningrad: Khimia, 1980. 208 p.

Bora M. Homogeneous precipitation of nickel hydroxide powders // Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. Iowa State University, 2013. 199 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.31274/rtd-180813-146 

Tang H. W., Wang J. L., Chang Z. R. Preparation and characterization of nanoscale nickel hydroxide using hydrothermal synthesis method // J. Func. Mater. 2008. Vol. 39, Issue 3. P. 469–476.

Hydrothermal synthesis of a flower-like nano-nickel hydroxide for high performance supercapacitors / Tang Y., Liu Y., Yu S., Zhao Y., Mu S., Gao F. // Electrochimica Acta. 2014. Vol. 123. P. 158–166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2013.12.187 

Hydrothermal synthesis of nickel hydroxide nanostructures in mixed solvents of water and alcohol / Yang L.-X., Zhu Y.-J., Tong H., Liang Z.-H., Li L., Zhang L. // Journal of Solid State Chemistry. 2007. Vol. 180, Issue 7. P. 2095–2101. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssc.2007.05.009 

Cui H. L., Zhang M. L. Synthesis of flower-like nickel hydroxide by ionic liquids-assisted // J. Yanan. Univ. 2009. Vol. 28, Issue 2. P. 76–83.

3D Flowerlike α-Nickel Hydroxide with Enhanced Electrochemical Activity Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method / Xu L., Ding Y.-S., Chen C.-H., Zhao L., Rimkus C., Joesten R., Suib S. L. // Chemistry of Materials. 2008. Vol. 20, Issue 1. P. 308–316. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/cm702207w 

Effect of Additives in the Stabilization of the α Phase of Ni(OH)[sub 2] Electrodes / Córdoba de Torresi S. I., Provazi K., Malta M., Torresi R. M. // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 2001. Vol. 148, Issue 10. P. A1179. doi: https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1403731 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. The electrochemical cathodic template synthesis of nickel hydroxide thin films for electrochromic devices: role of temperature // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 2, Issue 11 (86). P. 28–34. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.97371 

Research of the mechanism of formation and properties of tripolyphosphate coating on the steel basis / Vlasova E., Kovalenko V., Kotok V., Vlasov S. // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2016. Vol. 5, Issue 5 (83). P. 33–39. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2016.79559 

Antifriction and Construction Materials Based on Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Reinforced with Mineral and Synthetic Fibrous Fillers / Burmistr M. V., Boiko V. S., Lipko E. O., Gerasimenko K. O., Gomza Y. P., Vesnin R. L. et. al. // Mechanics of Composite Materials. 2014. Vol. 50, Issue 2. P. 213–222. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11029-014-9408-0 

Review of the structure and the electrochemistry of nickel hydroxides and oxy-hydroxides / Oliva P., Leonardi J., Laurent J. F., Delmas C., Braconnier J. J., Figlarz M. et. al. // Journal of Power Sources. 1982. Vol. 8, Issue 2. P. 229–255. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-7753(82)80057-8 

Mehdizadeh R., Sanati S., Saghatforoush L. A. Effect of PEG6000 on the morphology the β-Ni(OH)2 nanostructures: solvothermal synthesis, characterization, and formation mechanism // Research on Chemical Intermediates. 2013. Vol. 41, Issue 4. P. 2071–2079. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-013-1332-8 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. Optimization of nickel hydroxide electrode of the hybrid supercapacitor // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 1, Issue 6 (85). P. 4–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.90810 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. Electrochromism of Ni(OH)2 films obtained by cathode template method with addition of Al, Zn, Co ions // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 3, Issue 12 (87). P. 38–43. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.103010 

Kotok V., Kovalenko V. The properties investigation of the faradaic supercapacitor electrode formed on foamed nickel substrate with polyvinyl alcohol using // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 4, Issue 12 (88). P. 31–37. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.108839 

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Influence of ultrasound and template on the properties of nickel hydroxide as an active substance of supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 3, Issue 12 (93). P. 32–39. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.133548

Kovalenko V., Kotok V. Study of the influence of the template concentration under homogeneous precepitation on the properties of Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitors // Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017. Vol. 4, Issue 6 (88). P. 17–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2017.106813 

Ecsedi Z., Lazău I., Păcurariu C. Synthesis of mesoporous alumina using polyvinyl alcohol template as porosity control additive // Processing and Application of Ceramics. 2007. Vol. 1, Issue 1-2. P. 5–9. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/pac0702005e 

Pon-On W., Meejoo S., Tang I.-M. Formation of hydroxyapatite crystallites using organic template of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) // Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2008. Vol. 112, Issue 2. P. 453–460. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2008.05.082 

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061