DOI: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2019.188251

Construction of the algorithm for assessing the environmental safety of galvanic sludges

Vita Datsenko, Natali Khimenko, Lilua Egorova, Yana Svishchova, Оleksandr Dubyna, Olena Budvytska, Nina Lyubymova, Volodymyr Pasternak, Ludmila Pusik

Abstract


Based on the developed algorithm, the sanitary and toxicological properties have been assessed in the system "Galvanic sludge ‒ natural object" using model copper-zinc sludge.

The following minerals containing heavy metal ions have been identified in galvanic sludge: ZnSO4∙H2O, ZnSO4∙7H2O, Cu3(OH)4(SO4), (Zn3.2Cu0.8)(SO4)(OH)6∙4Н2О, which could, at a long-term interaction with the environment, form easily soluble toxic compounds. It has been established that the process of neutralizing sulfate copper-zinc solutions with lime milk proceeds in two stages: the formation of semi-aquatic and two-water gypsum; heavy metal compounds. The water-migration activity of the Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions has been investigated, which are included in the galvanic sludge composition. It has been proven that of the two metals examined, the Zn2+ cations contribute more to the negative impact on environmental objects than the Cu2+ cations. Patterns in the distribution and migration of heavy metal ions in soils after contamination by galvanic sludge have been investigated. It has been established that the intensity of transformation of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions from galvanic sludge to soil is defined by the soil type and the physical and chemical properties of the metals themselves. The correlation between the mobility of heavy metal ions and soil acidity has been investigated. For Zn2+, maximum mobility is observed in soils whose pH is ≈7. For Cu2+, mobility in neutral or alkaline soils is lower than that in acidic soils. The basic quantitative indicators of the potential phytotoxicity of galvanic sludge have been determined: germination, energy, friendliness and duration of germination of test plant seeds. It has been shown that the joint effect of Cu2+ and Zn2+ manifests itself both in the inhibition and stimulation of the growth processes of test plants and is determined, first of all, by the biological specificity of the test culture itself, as well as the properties of soil and the degree of its pollution.

The sequence of studies reported in this work makes it possible to predict the danger of galvanic sludge to the natural environment. It could also be used by environmental and design organizations in agricultural-ecological monitoring

Keywords


algorithm; industrial waste; galvanic sludge; sanitary and toxicological properties; environmental safety

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Copyright (c) 2019 Vita Datsenko, Natali Khimenko, Lilua Egorova, Yana Svishchova, Оleksandr Dubyna, Olena Budvytska, Nina Lyubymova, Volodymyr Pasternak, Ludmila Pusik

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ISSN (print) 1729-3774, ISSN (on-line) 1729-4061