Results of research of the reduced emissions of pollutants by road vehicles of various environmental classes "Euro" as the basis of environmental hazard labeling
Keywords:road vehicles, pollutants, reduced emissions, environmental hazard labeling
AbstractThis study analyzes the change in the calculated reduced emissions of pollutants by all major categories of road vehicles of European environmental classes from "Euro-0" to "Euro-6". It covers cars, light commercial vehicles, trucks, buses, and category L vehicles (mopeds and motorcycles). The reduced mass emissions of pollutants are defined in a common coordinate system, from both traditional internal combustion engines and electric vehicles. Emissions in atmospheric air by wearing products of a pneumatic tire, road pavement, and brake pad are also taken into account. The methodology for calculation of reduced mass operational emissions includes 64 types of major pollutants, grouped into eight specific groups. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, ammonia, light hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, particles, sulfur compounds, metals, are covered. Particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust, pneumatic tire wear, road pavement, and brake pads are taken into account. Particulate matter emissions include both elemental carbon and individually adsorbed and absorbed carcinogens in their composition. The average operational mass emissions of pollutants were determined using the methodology of the European Environment Agency. For each of the 64 pollutants, a relative toxicity (aggressiveness) factor is proposed. It is based on available data on the maximum permissible concentrations of substances in ambient air. It is determined as the ratio of the maximum permissible concentrations of carbon monoxide to a known pollutant. It was found that the reduced emissions by cars of level "Euro-5" and "Euro-6" with gasoline engines are only about four times higher than the reduced emissions of electric vehicles; the reduced emissions of "Euro-6++" cars with diesel engines are twice as high as those of "Euro-5" or "Euro-6" cars with gasoline engines; the reduced emissions of trucks and city buses of "Euro-6" level are on average only about five times greater than the reduced emissions of electric transport; the reduced emissions by vehicles of category L (mopeds and motorcycles) can significantly exceed the emissions of cars and even buses and trucks. The results obtained could be the basis for the development of environmental (ecological) classification and labeling of road vehicles. It provides opportunities for the introduction of fiscal and other mechanisms to encourage the use of more environmentally friendly vehicles in line with the practice of EU Member States, using the "polluter pays" principle. General principles of the introduction of the universal system of road vehicles' environmental hazard labeling are proposed. It is suggested to set discrete baseline levels of environmental hazard in increments of 1.259 times the reduced emissions, which is equal to an increase by 100.1 times in the specific energy value, that is, 1 dB
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