Effect of microbial polysaccharides on the quality indicators of protein-free and gluten-free products during storage





protein-free bread, gluten-free muffins, microbial polysaccharides, processes of staling, starch retrogradation, quality indicators


This paper reports a study into the effect of the microbial polysaccharides (MPS) xampan, enposan, and gelan on quality indicators during the storage of protein-free bread and gluten-free muffins.

Microbial polysaccharides such as xampan, enposan, and gelan are effective structure-forming agents in gluten-free products. These hydrocolloids not only participate in the formation of the structure of dough and finished products but also affect the staling processes in gluten-free products during storage.

The addition of the studied MPS leads to a slowdown in the staling processes of protein-free bread based on corn starch, as well as muffins based on wheat germ meal, during storage. It was found that in 24 hours of storage, the protein-free bread demonstrates a decrease in the moisture loss and crumbling index, as well as an increase in compressibility indicator, compared with control samples. It was also determined that gluten-free muffins with the addition of MPS lose moisture more slowly over 7 days of storage; they have lower crumbling and compressibility indices compared to the control. This is due to the high hydrophilic properties of the studied microbial polysaccharides, which can bind a significant amount of water and retain it during the storage of products. In addition, microbial hydrocolloids can envelop the gelatinized starch grains with a thin film, thereby helping inhibit the process of starch retrogradation.

The samples of bread and muffins containing MPS almost did not change their appearance, color, taste, and smell during the studied shelf life, while the crumb of the examined samples demonstrated better elasticity and less crumbling.

All studied MPS exhibit the same nature of the effect on the quality indicators of products during storage with xampan exerting the greatest effect and gelan ‒ the least

Author Biographies

Olga Samokhvalova , Kharkiv State University of Food Technology and Trade

PhD, Professor

Department of Bakery, Confectionary, Pasta and Food Concentrates Technology

Zinoviya Kucheruk , Kharkiv State University of Food Technology and Trade

PhD, Professor

Department of Bakery, Confectionary, Pasta and Food Concentrates Technology

Kateryna Kasabova , Kharkiv State University of Food Technology and Trade

PhD, Associate Professor

Department of Technology of Bakery, Confectionary, Pasta and Food Concentrates

Svitlana Oliinyk , Kharkiv State University of Food Technology and Trade

PhD, Associate Professor

Department of Bakery, Confectionary, Pasta and Food Concentrates Technology

Nataliа Shmatchenko , Kharkiv State University Food Technology and Trade

PhD, Senior Lecturer

Department of Bakery, Confectionary, Pasta and Food Concentrates Technology


  1. Medvid, I. M., Shydlovska, O. B., Dotsenko, V. F., Fedorenko, Yu. O. (2018). Perspektyvy rozshyrennia asortymentu khlibobulochnykh vyrobiv dlia khvorykh na tseliakiiu. Khranenye y pererabotka zerna nauchno-praktycheskyi porta. Available at: http://hipzmag.com/tehnologii/hlebopechenie/perspektivi-rozshirennya-asortimentu-hlibobulochnih-virobiv-dlya-hvorih-na-tseliakiyu/
  2. Khlebnye perspektivy: nad chem porabotat v 2017 (2017). Portal top-menedzherov optovoi i roznichnoi torgovli. Available at: https://trademaster.ua/articles/312404
  3. Shoraka, H. R., Haghdoost, A. A., Baneshi, M. R., Bagherinezhad, Z., Zolala, F. (2020). Global prevalence of classic phenylketonuria based on Neonatal Screening Program Data: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics, 63 (2), 34–43. doi: http://doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2019.00465
  4. Pro zatverdzhennia ta vprovadzhennia medyko-tekhnolohichnykh dokumentiv zi standartyzatsii medychnoi dopomohy pry fenilketonurii (2015). Nakaz MOZ Ukrainy No. 760. 19.11.2015. Available at: http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/MOZ25457.html
  5. Bezgliutenovye produkty: rost populiarnosti vo vsem mire (2015). Khlebnii i konditerskii biznes, 7, 8–9. Available at: https://smartpress.com.ua/tovar-2019-hlebnyiy-i-konditerskiy-biznes
  6. Vyroby khlibobulochni dlia spetsialnoho diietychnoho spozhyvannia. Zahalni tekhnichni umovy: DSTU-P 4588:2006 (2006). Kyiv: Derzhspozhyvstandart Ukrainy, 23. Available at: https://dnaop.com/html/33877/doc-ДСТУ-П_4588_2006
  7. Goriacheva, A. F., Kuzminskii, R. V. (1983). Sokhranenie svezhesti khleba Moscow: Legkaia i pischevaia promyshlenost, 240. Available at: https://www.twirpx.com/file/1421087/
  8. Staling Causes and Effects (2018). Baking Update, 3 (9). Available at: https://lallemandbaking.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/3_9STALING.pdf
  9. Willhoft, E. M. A. (2007). Mechanism and theory of staling of bread and baked goods, and associated changes in textural properties. Journal of Texture Studies, 4 (3), 292–322. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.1973.tb00844.x
  10. Salehi, F. (2020). Effect of common and new gums on the quality, physical, and textural properties of bakery products: A review. Journal of Texture Studies, 51 (2), 361–370. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12482
  11. Zahorulko, A., Zagorulko, A., Fedak, N., Sabadash, S., Kazakov, D., Kolodnenko, V. (2019). Improving a vacuum-evaporator with enlarged heat exchange surface for making fruit and vegetable semi-finished products. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6 (11 (102)), 6–13. doi: http://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2019.178764
  12. Zahorulko, A., Zagorulko, A., Kasabova, K., Shmatchenko, N. (2020). Improvement of zefir production by addition of the developed blended fruit and vegetable pasteinto its recipe. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2 (11 (104)), 39–45. doi: http://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2020.185684
  13. Hryshchenko, A. M., Udvorheli, L. I., Mykhonik, L. A., Kovalevska, Ye. I. (2010). Doslidzhennia strukturno-mekhanichnykh vlastyvostei bezbilkovoho tista z kamediamy huaru i ksantanu. Kharchova nauka i tekhnolohiia, 1, 63–65. Available at: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Khnit_2010_1_21
  14. Özboy, Ö. (2002). Development of corn starch gum bread for phenylketonuria patients. Food/Nahrung, 46 (2), 87–91. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20020301)46:2<87::aid-food87>3.0.co;2-y
  15. Mir, S. A., Shah, M. A., Naik, H. R., Zargar, I. A. (2016). Influence of hydrocolloids on dough handling and technological properties of gluten-free breads. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 51, 49–57. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.03.005
  16. Noorlaila, A., Hasanah, H. N., Asmeda, R., Yusoff, A. (2020). The effects of xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose on physical properties of sponge cakes. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 19 (2), 128–135. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2018.08.001
  17. Eduardo, M., Svanberg, U., Ahrné, L. (2016). Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf‐life of composite cassava‐maize‐wheat bread after storage. Food Science & Nutrition, 4 (4), 636–644. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.326
  18. Lazaridou, A., Duta, D., Papageorgiou, M., Belc, N., Biliaderis, C. G. (2007). Effects of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality parameters in gluten-free formulations. Journal of Food Engineering, 79 (3), 1033–1047. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.03.032
  19. Samokhvalova, O. V., Chernіkova, Iu. O., Olіinik, S. G., Kasabova, K. R. (2015). The effect of microbial polysaccharides on the properties of wheat flour. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6 (10 (78)), 11–15. doi: http://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2015.56177
  20. Guarda, A., Rosell, C., Benedito, C., Galotto, M. . (2004). Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and antistaling agents. Food Hydrocolloids, 18 (2), 241–247. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/s0268-005x(03)00080-8
  21. Horstmann, S., Belz, M., Heitmann, M., Zannini, E., Arendt, E. (2016). Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads. Foods, 5 (4), 30. doi: http://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020030
  22. Ferrero, C., Martino, M. N., Zaritzky, N. E. (1994). Corn Starch-Xanthan Gum Interaction and Its Effect on the Stability During Storage of Frozen Gelatinized Suspension. Starch – Stärke, 46 (8), 300–308. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/star.19940460805
  23. Zheng, M., Su, H., You, Q., Zeng, S., Zheng, B., Zhang, Y., Zeng, H. (2019). An insight into the retrogradation behaviors and molecular structures of lotus seed starch-hydrocolloid blends. Food Chemistry, 295, 548–555. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.166
  24. Brennan, C. S., Tan, C. K., Kuri, V., Tudorica, C. M. (2004). The pasting behaviour and freeze-thaw stability of native starch and native starch-xanthan gum pastes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39 (10), 1017–1022. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.00884.x
  25. Bourekoua, H., Różyło, R., Benatallah, L., Wójtowicz, A., Łysiak, G., Zidoune, M. N., Sujak, A. (2017). Characteristics of gluten-free bread: quality improvement by the addition of starches/hydrocolloids and their combinations using a definitive screening design. European Food Research and Technology, 244 (2), 345–354. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-017-2960-9
  26. Bolokhovskaia, V. A., Gvozdiak, R. І., Votselko, S. K. et. al. (1993). Fiziko-khimicheskie svoistva preparatov polimiksana, poluchennykh iz razlichnykh shtammov Bacillus polymyxa. Mikrob. Zhurnal, 2, 27–34.
  27. Ninomiya, E., Kizaki, T. (2003). Bacterial polysaccharide from Bacillus polymyxa No. 271. Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie, 6 (1), 179–185. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/apmc.1969.050060118
  28. Lorenzo, G., Zaritzky, N., Califano, A. (2013). Rheological analysis of emulsion-filled gels based on high acyl gellan gum. Food Hydrocolloids, 30 (2), 672–680. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.08.014
  29. Bradbeer, J. F., Hancocks, R., Spyropoulos, F., Norton, I. T. (2015). Low acyl gellan gum fluid gel formation and their subsequent response with acid to impact on satiety. Food Hydrocolloids, 43, 501–509. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.07.006
  30. Mykhaylov, V., Samokhvalova, O., Kucheruk, Z., Kasabova, K., Simakova, O., Goriainova, I. et. al. (2019). Influence of microbial polysaccharides on the formation of structure of protein-free and gluten-free flour-based products. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6 (11 (102)), 23–32. doi: http://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2019.184464
  31. Mykhaylov, V., Samokhvalova, O., Kucheruk, Z., Kasabova, K., Simakova, O., Goriainova, I. et. al. (2019). Study of microbial polysaccharides’ impact on organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters of protein-free and gluten-free floury products. EUREKA: Life Sciences, 6, 37–43. doi: http://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2019.001067
  32. Oliinyk, S., Samokhvalova, O., Lapitska, N., Kucheruk, Z. (2020). Studying the influence of meats from wheat and oat germs, and rose hips, on the formation of quality of rye­w heat dough and bread. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1 (11 (103)), 59–65. doi: http://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2020.187944
  33. Drobot, V. I. (2015). Tekhnokhimichnyi kontrol syrovyny ta khlibobulochnykh i makaronnykh vyrobiv. Kyiv: «Kondor-Vydavnytstvo», 972.
  34. Drobot, V. I. (2019). Dovidnyk z tekhnolohii khlibopekarskoho vyrobnytstva. Kyiv: «ProfKnyha», 580.



How to Cite

Samokhvalova , O. ., Kucheruk , Z., Kasabova , K., Oliinyk , S., & Shmatchenko , N. (2021). Effect of microbial polysaccharides on the quality indicators of protein-free and gluten-free products during storage . Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1(11 (109), 61–68. https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.225003



Technology and Equipment of Food Production