Optimization of water-heat treatment when making flour from ancient wheat
Keywords:spelt wheat, water-heat treatment, ash content, whiteness, flour yield
Recommendations for processing spelt wheat into high and first grade flour were developed. The studies of the influence of parameters of water-heat treatment on the yield of flour from spelt wheat grain, its whiteness and ash content were conducted. The hypothesis about the influence of moisture on the properties of spelt wheat grains similar to grain of bare-grain kinds of wheat was proved. A comparative analysis of the yield and quality of the samples that were milled after conducting water-heat treatment and at actual initial humidity of grain from 13.0 % to 14.5 % was performed. The use of the water-heat treatment (humidity of 15–16 %) allow obtaining the total yield of flour that is by 0.6–3.0 % higher, ash content decreases by 0.26 % after the first milling and by 0.22 % after the second milling. Flour whiteness after the first and second milling increases by 10 and 20 units, respectively. During milling, the spelt wheat grain without water-heat treatment, the samples with the highest initial humidity (14.0–14.5 %) demonstrated the best results (total yield of flour is 83.0–83.3 %, ash content is 0.76– 0.91 %, whiteness 25–51 units).
In the production of flour from wheat spelt the recommended way to water-heat treatment implies single damping and softening of grain. Unlike the classical method, there is no damping stage before early break. Grain damping to 15.5 % and softening duration of 30 hours is optimal. The use the proposed treatment makes it possible to obtain the total yield of flour of 85.0 %. By major quality indicators, the resulting product refers to high and first grade flour.The results, presented in the article, make it possible to adjust reasonably the operation of the units for grain damping and choosing the optimum time for its softening
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