Results of research of the reduced emissions of pollutants by road vehicles of various environmental classes "Euro" as the basis of environmental hazard labeling




road vehicles, pollutants, reduced emissions, environmental hazard labeling


This study analyzes the change in the calculated reduced emissions of pollutants by all major categories of road vehicles of European environmental classes from "Euro-0" to "Euro-6". It covers cars, light commercial vehicles, trucks, buses, and category L vehicles (mopeds and motorcycles). The reduced mass emissions of pollutants are defined in a common coordinate system, from both traditional internal combustion engines and electric vehicles. Emissions in atmospheric air by wearing products of a pneumatic tire, road pavement, and brake pad are also taken into account. The methodology for calculation of reduced mass operational emissions includes 64 types of major pollutants, grouped into eight specific groups. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, ammonia, light hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, particles, sulfur compounds, metals, are covered. Particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust, pneumatic tire wear, road pavement, and brake pads are taken into account. Particulate matter emissions include both elemental carbon and individually adsorbed and absorbed carcinogens in their composition. The average operational mass emissions of pollutants were determined using the methodology of the European Environment Agency. For each of the 64 pollutants, a relative toxicity (aggressiveness) factor is proposed. It is based on available data on the maximum permissible concentrations of substances in ambient air. It is determined as the ratio of the maximum permissible concentrations of carbon monoxide to a known pollutant. It was found that the reduced emissions by cars of level "Euro-5" and "Euro-6" with gasoline engines are only about four times higher than the reduced emissions of electric vehicles; the reduced emissions of "Euro-6++" cars with diesel engines are twice as high as those of "Euro-5" or "Euro-6" cars with gasoline engines; the reduced emissions of trucks and city buses of "Euro-6" level are on average only about five times greater than the reduced emissions of electric transport; the reduced emissions by vehicles of category L (mopeds and motorcycles) can significantly exceed the emissions of cars and even buses and trucks. The results obtained could be the basis for the development of environmental (ecological) classification and labeling of road vehicles. It provides opportunities for the introduction of fiscal and other mechanisms to encourage the use of more environmentally friendly vehicles in line with the practice of EU Member States, using the "polluter pays" principle. General principles of the introduction of the universal system of road vehicles' environmental hazard labeling are proposed. It is suggested to set discrete baseline levels of environmental hazard in increments of 1.259 times the reduced emissions, which is equal to an increase by 100.1 times in the specific energy value, that is, 1 dB

Author Biography

Oleksii Klymenko, State Enterprise "State Road Transport Research Institute" Peremohy ave., 57, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03113

PhD, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of Research Laboratory, Deputy Head of Testing Centre

Research Laboratory of Fuels and the Environment

Scientific and Technological Development of Road Vehicle Testing Centre


  1. Hill, N., Windisch, E., Klimenko, A. (2016). Development of national policy on regulation of road transport CO2 emissions and energy consumption in Ukraine. Clima East project report, 212. Available at:
  2. Worldwide Emission Standards and Related Regulations. Passenger Cars/Light and Medium Duty Vehicles (2019). Available at:
  3. ACEA. Tax Guide (2019). Available at:
  4. Yang, Z. (2018). Overview of Global Fuel Economy Policies. 2018 APCAP Joint Forum and Clean Air Week. ICCT. Available at:
  5. Posada, F. (2018). Fuel Economy Policy Options and Target Setting. Africa Clean Mobility Week 2018. ICCT. Available at:
  6. Yang, Z. (2018). Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards and Feebate System. ACEEE International Symposium on Energy Efficiency. Available at:
  7. Redziuk, A. M., Klymenko, O. A. (2018). Regarding strategy to improve energy efficiency of road transport. Avtoshliakhovyk Ukrainy, 4 (256), 2–11.
  8. Low Emission Zones. ACEA Position Paper (2015). Available at:
  9. Amundsen, A. H., Sundvor, I. (2018). Low Emission Zones in Europe. Requirements, enforcement and air quality. TØI report 1666/2018, 88. Available at:
  10. Evaluation de la zone de basses emissions rapport 2018. Available at:
  11. Donchenko, V. V., Kunin, Yu. I., Vaysblyum, M. E., Gusarov, A. P., Semenihin, A. N., Sazonova, G. M. (2016). Perspektivy vnedreniya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii sistemy «Eko-markirovki» vnov' registriruemyh i ekspluatiruemyh avtotransportnyh sredstv: Proekt PROON/GEF-Mintrans Rossii 00080462 «Sokrashchenie vybrosov parnikovyh gazov ot avtomobil'nogo transporta v gorodah Rossii». Moscow, 230.
  12. Expected effects from the low emission zone on car fleet and air quality in the Brussels region (2019). Available at:
  13. Klimenko, A., Hill, N., Windisch, E. (2019). Approaches to regulation of CO2 emission and energy consumption indicators of new light duty vehicles in Ukraine. The National Transport University Bulletin, 1 (43), 66–75. doi:
  14. Klymenko, O., Ustymenko, V., Kolobov, K., Rychok, S., Gora, M., Naumenko, N. (2019). Analysis of the studies results of emissions of pollutants by used cars imported into Ukraine from the USA. Avtoshliakhovyk Ukrainy, 1 (257), 2–11.
  15. Klymenko, O., Ustymenko, V., Kolobov, K., Rychok, S., Hora, M., Naumenko, N. (2019). Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America. SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy, 1 (1). doi:
  16. Hutarevych, Yu. F., Zerkalov, D. V., Hovorun, A. H., Korpach, A. O., Merzhyievska, L. P. (2006). Ekolohiya ta avtomobilnyi transport. Kyiv, 292.
  17. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 – Update Jul. 2018. Available at:
  18. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 – Road transport: Automobile type and brake wear, Automobile road abrasion. Available at:
  19. GN Predel'no dopustimye kontsentratsii (PDK) zagryaznyayushchih veshchestv v atmosfernom vozduhe naselennyh mest.
  20. GN Predel'no dopustimye kontsentratsii (PDK) zagryaznyayushchih veshchestv v atmosfernom vozduhe gorodskih i sel'skih poseleniy.
  21. GN Predel'no dopustimye kontsentratsii (PDK) vrednyh veshchestv v vozduhe rabochey zony.
  22. GOST 12.1.005-88. Sistema standartov bezopasnosti truda (SSBT). Obshchie sanitarno-gigienicheskie trebovaniya k vozduhu rabochey zony (s Izmeneniem No. 1).
  23. Hranychno dopustymi kontsentratsiyi khimichnykh i biolohichnykh rechovyn v atmosfernomu povitri naselenykh mists. Zatverdzheni v 2015 r. t.v.o. holovnoho derzhavnoho sanitarnoho likaria Ukrainy S.V. Protasom.
  24. DSP-201-97. Derzhavni sanitarni pravyla okhorony atmosfernoho povitria naselenykh mists (vid zabrudnennia khimichnymy ta biolohichnymy rechovynamy)», zatverdzheni nakazom Ministerstva okhorony zdorovia Ukrainy vid 9 lypnia 1997 r. No. 201.
  25. Hranychno dopustymi kontsentratsiyi (HDK) ta orientovni bezpechni rivni diyannia (OBRD) zabrudniuiuchykh rechovyn v atmosfernomu povitri naselenykh mists. Available at:




How to Cite

Klymenko, O. (2020). Results of research of the reduced emissions of pollutants by road vehicles of various environmental classes "Euro" as the basis of environmental hazard labeling. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1(10 (103), 43–52.