Studying the accumulation of nitrogenous substances in biofortified pumpkin vegetables




biofortification, fertilizers, Riverm, protein, nitrogenous substances, amino acids, pumpkin vegetables, micronutrients


The main purpose of biofortificatrion is obtaining plant products with improved nutritional properties. Plant products are biofortified by means of the classic selection, genetic modification, or with the use of special fertilizers. Food plants have traditionally been enriched with vital minerals and vitamins; lately, they have also been bioenriched with amino acids and proteins. Vegetable protein consumed with the animal one enhances the value of protein nutrition due to the formed biologically active amino acid complexes. The value of vegetable protein increases in vegetarian nutrition, especially hard food, and nutrition of people suffering from celiac desease. We have studied the peculiarities of nitrogenous substances’ accumulation in biofortified pumpkin vegetables grown with the use of the liquid, organic, environment-friendly Riverm fertilizer. The objects of study are biofortified pumpkin vegetables: pumpkins of Oleshkivskyi and Sviten varieties, melons of Olvia and Fortuna varieties, and watermelons of Orphei and Atlant varieties. The reference samples are vegetables grown by the standard technology, without the above mentioned fertilizer. The research findings show that biofortified pumpkin vegetables are characterized by higher contents of total nitrogen and protein nitrogen, as well as contain more protein in comparison with the reference samples: pumpkins – by 15.0-17.6 %, melons – by 6.5-16.4 %, and watermelons – by 8.9-10.1 %. The highest amount of essential amino acids is contained in the protein of biofortified pumpkins, a bit lower – in biofortified melons and watermelons. The protein of biofortified pumpkins is characterized by the content of leucine, valine, and lysine. Biofortified melons and watermelons are dominated by lysine and phenylalanine. The largest shares of replaceable amino acids in all the samples are those of aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Bioenriched with nitrogenous substances (in particular, protein and amino acids) pumpkin vegetables cannot fully satisfy human needs of proteins and essential amino acids, although they can perfectly supplement nutrition with the latter. Such vegetables can be recommended to be used in balanced diets of animal and vegetable proteins, glutenless diets, and vegetarian diets.

Author Biographies

Gregoriy Deinychenko, Kharkiv State University of Food Technology and Trade 333 Klochkivska St., Kharkiv, Ukraine, 61051

Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor 

Department of Equipment for the Enterprises of Food

Olha Yudicheva, Higher Educational Establishment of Ukoopspilka «Poltava University of Economics and Trade» 3 Koval str., Poltava, Ukraine, 36014

Associate Professor

Department of Expertise and Customs 


  1. Dunaevskiy, G. A., Popik, S. Y. (1990). Ovoshchi i frukty v pitanii zdorovogo i bolnogo cheloveka. Кyiv: Zdorove, 160.
  2. Hirschi, K. D. (2009). Nutrient Biofortification of Food Crops. Annual Review of Nutrition, 29 (1), 401–421. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-080508-141143
  3. Burlaka, O. M., Sorochynskyy B. V. (2010) Roslynni biotekhnolohii: biofortyfikatsiia kharchovykh roslyn. Кyiv: DІА, 88.
  4. Welch, R. M. (2005). Biotechnology, Biofortification, and Global Health. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 26 (4), 304–306. doi: 10.1177/15648265050264s309
  5. Fageria, N. K., Moraes, M. F., Ferreira, E. P. B., Knupp, A. M. (2012). Biofortification of Trace Elements in Food Crops for Human Health. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43 (3), 556–570. doi: 10.1080/00103624.2012.639431
  6. Murgia, I., De Gara, L., Grusak, M. A. (2013). Biofortification: how can we exploit plant science and biotechnology to reduce micronutrient deficiencies? Frontiers in Plant Science, 4, 429. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00429
  7. Chojnacka, K., Mikulewicz, M., Cieplik, J. (2011). Biofortification of Food with Microelements. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 6 (4), 544–548. doi: 10.3844/ajabssp.2011.544.548
  8. Mayer, J. E., Pfeiffer, W. H., Beyer, P. (2008). Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 11 (2), 166–170. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2008.01.007
  9. Gilligan, D. O. (2012). Biofortification, Agricultural Technology Adoption, and Nutrition Policy: Some Lessons and Emerging Challenges*. CESifo Economic Studies, 58 (2), 405–421. doi: 10.1093/cesifo/ifs020
  10. Leyva-Guerrero, E., Narayanan, N. N., Ihemere, U., Sayre, R. T. (2012). Iron and protein biofortification of cassava: lessons learned. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23 (2), 257–264. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2011.12.009
  11. DellaValle, D. M., Thavarajah, D., Thavarajah, P., Vandenberg, A., Glahn, R. P. (2013). Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) as a candidate crop for iron biofortification: Is there genetic potential for iron bioavailability? Field Crops Research, 144, 119–125. doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2013.01.002
  12. Nair, R. M., Yang, R.-Y., Easdown, W. J., Thavarajah, D., Thavarajah, P., Hughes, J. d’A, Keatinge, J. D. (2013). Biofortification of mungbean ( Vigna radiata ) as a whole food to enhance human health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93 (8), 1805–1813. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6110
  13. McGrath, S. P., Chambers, B. J., Taylor, M. J., Carlton-Smith, C. H. (2012). Biofortification of zinc in wheat grain by the application of sewage sludge. Plant and Soil, 361 (1-2), 97–108. doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1381-6
  14. Aciksoz, S. B., Yazici, A., Ozturk, L., Cakmak, I. (2011). Biofortification of wheat with iron through soil and foliar application of nitrogen and iron fertilizers. Plant and Soil, 349 (1-2), 215–225. doi: 10.1007/s11104-011-0863-2
  15. Hussain, S., Maqsood, M. A., Rengel, Z., Aziz, T. (2012). Biofortification and estimated human bioavailability of zinc in wheat grains as influenced by methods of zinc application. Plant and Soil, 361 (1-2), 279–290. doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1217-4
  16. Zhang, Y.-Q., Deng, Y., Chen, R.-Y., Cui, Z.-L., Chen, X.-P., Yost, R. et. al. (2012). The reduction in zinc concentration of wheat grain upon increased phosphorus-fertilization and its mitigation by foliar zinc application. Plant and Soil, 361 (1-2), 143–152. doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1238-z
  17. Ajiboye, B., Cakmak, I., Paterson, D., de Jonge, M. D., Howard, D. L., Stacey, S. P. et. al. (2015). X-ray fluorescence microscopy of zinc localization in wheat grains biofortified through foliar zinc applications at different growth stages under field conditions. Plant and Soil, 392 (1-2), 357–370. doi: 10.1007/s11104-015-2467-8
  18. Zou, C. Q., Zhang, Y. Q., Rashid, A., Ram, H., Savasli, E., Arisoy, R. Z. et. al. (2012). Biofortification of wheat with zinc through zinc fertilization in seven countries. Plant and Soil, 361 (1-2), 119–130. doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1369-2
  19. Poblaciones, M. J., Rodrigo, S. M., Santamaría, O. (2012). Evaluation of the Potential of Peas (Pisum sativum L.) to Be Used in Selenium Biofortification Programs Under Mediterranean Conditions. Biological Trace Element Research, 151 (1), 132–137. doi: 10.1007/s12011-012-9539-x
  20. Rahmana, M. M., Erskine, W., Zaman, M. S., Thavarajah, P., Thavarajah, D., Siddique, K. H. M. (2013). Selenium biofortification in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris): Farmers' field survey and genotype × environment effect. Food Research International, 54 (2), 1596–1604. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2013.09.008
  21. Seppänen, M. M., Kontturi, J., Heras, I. L., Madrid, Y., Cámara, C., Hartikainen, H. (2010). Agronomic biofortification of Brassica with selenium – enrichment of SeMet and its identification in Brassica seeds and meal. Plant and Soil, 337 (1-2), 273–283. doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0523-y
  22. Landini, M., Gonzali, S., Perata, P. (2011). Iodine biofortification in tomato. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174 (3), 480–486. doi: 10.1002/jpln.201000395
  23. Blasco, B., Ríos, J. J., Leyva, R., Cervilla, L. M., Sánchez-Rodríguez, E., Rubio-Wilhelmi, M. M. et. al. (2010). Does Iodine Biofortification Affect Oxidative Metabolism in Lettuce Plants? Biological Trace Element Research, 142 (3), 831–842. doi: 10.1007/s12011-010-8816-9
  24. Voogt, W., Holwerda, H. T., Khodabaks, R. (2010). Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90 (5), 906–913. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.3902
  25. Jin, Z., Minyan, W., Lianghuan, W., Jiangguo, W., Chunhai, S. (2008). Impacts of Combination of Foliar Iron and Boron Application on Iron Biofortification and Nutritional Quality of Rice Grain. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31 (9), 1599–1611. doi: 10.1080/01904160802244803
  26. Ježek, Р. et al. (2011). Effect of foliar application of selenium on the content of se-lected amino acids in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). Plant soil environ, 57 (7), 315–320.
  27. Kozak, V. V. (2009). Printsipy ekologicheski bezopasnogo zemledeliia. Kyiv: МEF «AQUA-VITAE», 38.
  28. Yudicheva, O. (2014). Study of Zinc Content in Biofortified Tomato. The Advanced Science Journal, 2014 (7), 15–18. doi: 10.15550/asj.2014.07.015
  29. Dejnychenko, G. V., Judicheva, O. P. (2015). Study of possibilities to grow biofortified vegetables as a source of cаrotenoids. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2/10 (74), 36–40. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2015.39763
  30. Yudicheva, O. P. (2015). Zavisimost khimicheskogo sostava ot sorta biofortifitsirovannykh tykvennykh ovoshchey. Vestnik Sibirskogo universiteta potrebitelskoy kooperatsii, 4 (11), 68–72.




How to Cite

Deinychenko, G., & Yudicheva, O. (2016). Studying the accumulation of nitrogenous substances in biofortified pumpkin vegetables. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 3(11(81), 40–46.



Technology and Equipment of Food Production