Studying the accumulation of nitrogenous substances in biofortified pumpkin vegetables
Keywords:biofortification, fertilizers, Riverm, protein, nitrogenous substances, amino acids, pumpkin vegetables, micronutrients
The main purpose of biofortificatrion is obtaining plant products with improved nutritional properties. Plant products are biofortified by means of the classic selection, genetic modification, or with the use of special fertilizers. Food plants have traditionally been enriched with vital minerals and vitamins; lately, they have also been bioenriched with amino acids and proteins. Vegetable protein consumed with the animal one enhances the value of protein nutrition due to the formed biologically active amino acid complexes. The value of vegetable protein increases in vegetarian nutrition, especially hard food, and nutrition of people suffering from celiac desease. We have studied the peculiarities of nitrogenous substances’ accumulation in biofortified pumpkin vegetables grown with the use of the liquid, organic, environment-friendly Riverm fertilizer. The objects of study are biofortified pumpkin vegetables: pumpkins of Oleshkivskyi and Sviten varieties, melons of Olvia and Fortuna varieties, and watermelons of Orphei and Atlant varieties. The reference samples are vegetables grown by the standard technology, without the above mentioned fertilizer. The research findings show that biofortified pumpkin vegetables are characterized by higher contents of total nitrogen and protein nitrogen, as well as contain more protein in comparison with the reference samples: pumpkins – by 15.0-17.6 %, melons – by 6.5-16.4 %, and watermelons – by 8.9-10.1 %. The highest amount of essential amino acids is contained in the protein of biofortified pumpkins, a bit lower – in biofortified melons and watermelons. The protein of biofortified pumpkins is characterized by the content of leucine, valine, and lysine. Biofortified melons and watermelons are dominated by lysine and phenylalanine. The largest shares of replaceable amino acids in all the samples are those of aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Bioenriched with nitrogenous substances (in particular, protein and amino acids) pumpkin vegetables cannot fully satisfy human needs of proteins and essential amino acids, although they can perfectly supplement nutrition with the latter. Such vegetables can be recommended to be used in balanced diets of animal and vegetable proteins, glutenless diets, and vegetarian diets.
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